French and Indian War
French and Native Americans vs. British and Colonists Causes: Rivalry between French/British; English/colonists want to move inland (French land)
Proclamation line of 1763
Kept the colonists from moving West past the Appalachian mountains; hated by the colonists
Stamp Act
Result of French and Indian War; tax on all printed paper
Sugar Act
tax on sugar, molasses, and lumber
Townshend Acts
a new way to tax the colonies to pay the governors, judges, and army
Sons of Liberty
group of unskilled workers who boycotted British goods and protested the British acts
Boston Massacre
British soldiers were taking low class workers' jobs and they threw snowballs and rocks at them. Someone yelled fire and the British killed 5 colonists and injured 1. Major Propaganda
Boston Tea party
dressed as Indians and dumped 3 million $ of tea into the harbor Samuel Adams was in charge
Intolerable Acts
result of the Boston tea party (closed Boston harbor/no committees allowed)
1st continental congress
1. each colony could have a militia- untrained, reserve army 2. stockpiling of guns and ammo Result: King George III sent Gage to take back ammo- Battles of Lexington and Concord
2nd continental congress
response to the battles of Lexington and Concord Formation of an army (official, not militia) olive Branch petition- peace treaty to king George
Battle of Bunker Hill (breed's hill)
fight for control of Boston British victory- heavy casualties, colonists success at head to head battle
Inalienable Rights
Rights set forth in the Declaration of Independence. John Locke came up with the rights and they were life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Some middle colonies and Southern colonies besides Virginia Farmers Government officials should be through the crown supported the British
New England (Mass., Conn., RI NH) Virginia Urban population- merchants wanted independence from Britain
Battle of Saratoga
colonists won Result: Alliance with France, British stopped fighting battles in the West
Valley Forge
The colonists' second winter, it was very cold and they didn't have resources or supplies. Many soldiers deserted. There was a lot of death, hypothermia, and illness. Washington stayed with his troops and gave them morale
British General- Cornwallis American General- G.W. French defeated British navy and blockaded Chesapeake Bay British soldiers were in Yorktown on the Peninsula Colonial army blocks the British from leaving the peninsula by land Cornwallis surrendered
Articles of Confederation
strengths: - est. national policies - borrow and coin money - create an army - declare war weaknesses: - no trade control - couldn't tax - no executive power - majority of states needed to do anything - no court system - no enforcement of laws
Shay's Rebellion
There was inflation so the colonists could not pay taxes. Western Massachusetts revolted, took over courthouse showed that there needs to be a strong national power
Constitutional Convention
large states vs. small states southern vs. northern states rights vs. national rights
Virginia Plan
3 branches of government legislative- bicameral based on population of states
New Jersey Plan
unicameral house equal representation favored small states
Checks and balances
Make sure no one branch has too much power
Bill of Rights
Protected colonists' rights 1-9: individual rights 10: states rights vs. federal rights
concurrent power
to make and impose laws tax
Connecticut Compromise
the great compromise 3 branches of government bicameral house based on equal representation and then a house based on population