activation-synthesis hypothesis
According to the ______, a dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep. shows that dreams are produced by the pons, which inhibits movement and sends signals to the cortex
unconscious conflicts stemming from childhood
Freud used dreams as a way to get at patients'.

..-phobias-brain waves-unconscious conflicts stemming from childhood-susceptibility to psychoanalysis

Physical sensations, such as nausea or extreme pain, that occur when the body is trying to adjust to the absence of a drug are called:
depressant drugs derived from opium poppy
minor tranquilizers
_____ are commonly used to tread anxiety
____ dependence is the most common in the U.S.

after alcohol and nicotine

about ___% of people are good hypnotic subjects
social cognitive
the ________ theory of hypnosis assume that people who are hypnotized are only playing a role, and are not in an altered state
hypnopompic hallucination
a hallucination that happens as a persons in e between stages of being in REM sleep and not-fully-awake
biological rhythm
heartbeats are examples of what?
REM myth
the idea that people deprived of REM sleep will be come paranoid and seem to be mentally ill
David experiences "sleep seizures"during the day. he most likely suffered from what?
the ____ theory of sleep states that sleep is a product of evolution. it explains why we sleep when we sleep
REM behavior disorder
a rare disorder in which the mechanism blocking the movement of voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around violently and even get up and act out nightmares
more alert
the higher the body temperature, the _____ people are
going to bed only when sleepy
insomnia can be helped by
during deep non-REM sleep
when are night terrors experienced
more complex, simple
When a person is sleep deprived ____ tasks will suffer less than _____ tasks
According to research, which of the following need the least amount of sleep?-3 month-old Timmy who lays around all day-19 year-old Sarah who is cramming for an exam-35 year old Dorothy who has no children and works at night-67 year old roger, who retired 2 years ago
social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
Archie believes that people who think they are hypnotized are not actually hypnotized at all. Infant, they are silly acting out everything that they are being told to do by the hypnotist. Archie's way of thinking is similar to what theory?
increased alertness
when under the influence of a stimulant you are likely to be in what kind of state?
altered consciousness
after taking meds for his back, Todd's thoughts become fuzzy and disorganized. Todd is in a state of ________
divided consciousness
driving and talking on the phone at the same time is an example of _______
proactive interface
Marcia dated Davido for several years.

They recently broke up and Maria went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called Oliver Davido. This is an example of what?

Who found that forgetting is greatest just after learning?
"An orange is orange"
According to the semantic network model of memory, to which of the following would an individual respond "true" or "false" to in the least amount of time?-"An orange is a fruit"-"An orange is orange"-"An orange is a round like plant"-"An orange is food"
Dr. Raime asked his students, "Who was the father of psychology?" Kanye quickly responded, "Wheilm Wundt, who in 1879 was credited as developing the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.

" The info Kanye was able to recall reflects what type of long-term memory?

the stage of memory in which it is stored
the information-processing model assumes the length of time a memory will be remembered depends on what?
parallel distributed processing model
derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence (AI)
prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe
research shows that short terms memories are stored where?
infantile amnesia
early memory before the age of 2 tend to be implicit, which explains ______
procedural memory
Once you learn to tie your shoes it becomes part of ______.
found its way into her long-term memory
After she had used "maintenance rehearsal" many times, Eve's social security number:-found its way into her long-term memory-moved back into sensory memory-was considered part of working memory-still remained in short-term memory
central executive
acts as interpreter for both the visual and auditory information in short-term memory (STM)
short-term memory
the system of working memory processes information in ____
anterograde amnesia
In _____, new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed
short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in _____ form.
iconic sensory
Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden he thinks, "Was that man wearing a bright purple shirt?" As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for eduardo's behavior?
____ memory refers to the awareness of the meaning of words concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on.
misinformation effect
kevin was in a study room, during which he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. later, he was asked if he noticed the man's curly hair.

Kevin was then convinced that the man in the photo had curly hair. this is an example of what?

the plausible false events were significantly more likely to be remembered as false memories than were the implausible false events
A study conducted by Pezdek and Hodge (1999) asked children to read five different summaries of childhood events. Two of these were false but only one of the two false events were plausible. These children were all told that these events happened to them as small children. this study showed what?
problem-solving activity
in his 1932, Sir Frederic Bartlett wrote that he viewed memory as a _______.
primacy effect
Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have trouble.

this is an example of what?

encoding specificity
the tendency for memory of any kind of info be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are available when the memory is being retrieved
the importance of retrieval cues in memory
you walk into a room and know that theres something you need, but in order to remember it, you must you much go back into the room you started in a use your surroundings. This illustrates what?
requires little or no effort to retrieve
info that enters long-term memory by automatic ---encoding:-must be practiced extensively-is rare-is most common in childhood-requires little or no effort to retrieve
state dependent learning
Chris learns her vocabulary while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called:
divergent thinking
Cultures like that of Japanese, which hold tho well-established traditions put less value on what?-convergent thinking -divergent thinking-traditional thinking-conformity
writing a term paper is best approached by using what?-algorithms-representative heuristics -subgoals-availability heuristics
In waking up in the morning one might follow a:-natural concept-algoritm-prototype-script
examples of ______ are mathematics formulas
working backwards from the goal
a useful heuristic that works much of the time is what?
a type of schema that involves a familiar sequence of activities
creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of life
Csiksgentmihalyi found that:-creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of life-creative people are usually only knowledgable about one to two subjects-creative people are generally eccentric-creative people value conformity
they will always result in a correct solution, if there is a solution to be found
which of the following s true regarding algorithms?-they are what happens when the mind simply recognizes a problem and comes up with a solution in an "Aha!" moment-they will always result in a correct solution, if there is a solution to be found-they are also known as mechanical solutions-they are also known as "rules of thumb"
What is an important factor in the formation of prototypes
actual tasks using visual perception
through the use of fMRI, researchers have found and overlap between areas of the brain activated during visual mental imagery tasks as compared to what?
confirmation bias
Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and her friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. this is an example of:-a mental set-functional fixedness-divergent thinking-confirmation bias
language acquisition device (LAD)
according to linguist Noam Chomsky, a ________ is an innate human ability to understand and produce language
demonstrated four consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice and the word "yes"
in a well-known animal language research study, Kanzi the chimp _____.-demonstrated 4 consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice, and the word "yes"-followed complex instructions up to the level of an 8 year-old child-mastered syntax-made enough consistent sounds to be considered to have his own language
linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorf used the now-famous example of the Inuits' many words for snow to support what?
Marjorie took personality test in April.

She took the same test in June and December, receiving a very similar score. This test can be considered _____.

Gardner theorize how many types of intelligence?
if a test measures what it is supposed to measure then it has what?
predict academic success
What is one thing IQ tests do well?
resistant to mental illnesses
Terman determined that gifted people are more ____ than those of average intelligence
analytical, creative, and practical
What are Sternberg's types of intelligence?
Stern's formula
a method for comparing mental age and chronological age that was adopted for use with the revised Binet intelligence test
emotional intelligence
According to Goleman, ______ is a more powerful influence of success in life than more traditional view of intelligence
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ____, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial
Michelle knits a blanket and uses it as a cover for her bed
Which of the following is not an example of divergent thinking?-Michelle knits a blanket and uses it as a cover for her bed-Jennifer makes bowling game using plastic water bottles and an orange-adia builds a tower using a deck of cards-Michael turns a piece of paper into a paper airplane
mental age
Keneisha is only 11 years old, but she can answer questions that most 15 year olds can answer. 15 is her what?
one-year-old baby could not walk two months ago but now he can. this is an example of what?
the cold water
Whenever you take a shower in your bathroom at home, the water in the shower turns icy cold just as the toilet in another bathroom is flushed, causing you to cringe.

After several experiences of this occurrence, you find that you tend to cringe whenever you hear a toilet flush, even when you're not in the shower. In this example of classical conditioning, what is the unconditioned stimulus?

primary, secondary
A hug is an example of a ___ reinforcer, and a certificate of appreciation is an example of a _____ reinforcer.
punishment by removal
time out is an example of what?
negative reinforcement
Every time Paul's neighbor upstairs plays loud music, Paul bangs on his ceiling with a broom and the music stops. Paul's behavior of banging on the ceiling to get the music to stop is an example of _______.-negative reinforcement-punishment by removal -positive reinforcement-punishment by application
fixed ratio
For every 25 boxes of cookies Tammy sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. On what schedule of reinforcement is Tammy being conditioned?
What does Seligman link learned helplessness to ?
learned to find the exit almost immediately
The second group of rats in Tolman's maze experiment was not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day.

Once they started getting reinforcement, the rats: -learned to find the exit after only five more days.-learned to find the exit almost immediately.-took just as long to find the exit as the third group, which received no reinforcement.-showed no interest in the reinforcement.

Gestalt psychologists
Tolman and Köhler are examples of what?
cannot be gained through trial and error learning alone
Köhler determined that insight: -can be taught through classical conditioning.-is not present in animals.-is instinctual.-cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone.
teaching rats to learn how to obtain food
One of B. F.

Skinner's famous experiments involved: -teaching rats to learn how to obtain food.-teaching coyotes to ignore sheep.-teaching babies to avoid loud noises.-teaching dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.

variable interval schedule of reinforcement
Fishing is an example of an activity with a: -variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.

-fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement.-variable interval schedule of reinforcement.-fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.

a police car is a ______ stimulus for slowing down
animals will revert to genetically controlled patterns
The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that: -animal consciousness differs from human consciousness.-animals will revert to genetically controlled patterns.

-all responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.-differences between species of animals are significant.

provide a successful model for aggression
Severe punishments, such as hitting: -are the most effective way to get children to listen.-work better on animals than people.-provide a successful model for aggression.

-are effective with only about 30 percent of children.

In his later studies, Bandura added the condition of _____ into his studies of children and the Bobo doll. -observation-modeling-reward-aggression
possible like between children's exposure to violence on tv and aggressive behavior to others
Bandura conducted some of his research to study: -the effects of rewards on children's behavior.-possible links between children's exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others.

-hero worship in children.-people's innate aggressiveness.

pay attention
According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the leaner much first do what?
A 5-year-old watches his father dunk a basketball. Since the child is unable to reach the basket in the way his father can, the child cannot learn this behavior by observing because he cannot accomplish what step?
preparing the training arena
In toilet training a cat, "Lid up, Seat down" is known in operant conditioning as what?
spontaneous recovery
After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov's dogs stopped responding to the metronome.

If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:

stimulus substitution
Pavlov believed that the CS, due to its association close in time with UCS, came to activate the same place in the brain originally activated by the UCS. What belief is this?
When children witness other children cry when getting a vaccination, and the witnesses then cry even before the needle touches them, it is an example of what kind of conditioning?
Vicarious conditioning
the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person
for classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus much be what?
awareness of everything around you and inside of your own head at any given moment
______ consciousness contains thoughts feeling and sensations and is clear and organized
altered states of consciousness
shifts in the quality or pattern of mental activity
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), hypothalamus, pineal gland and melatonin
what are the most important factors in circadian rhythm?
SCN triggers the creation of melatonin from the denial gland, making you feel sleepy
Pertaining to circadian rhythm, what happens when it gets dark?
SCN stops the secretion of melatonin, allowing the body to waken
Pertaining to circadian rhythm, what happens when it gets light?
sleep regulation
How is the neurotransmitter serotonin related to sleep?
as it builds up we become more sleepy
How is adenosine related to sleep?
micro sleeps
brief periods of sleep that last only a few seconds
the ____ theory of sleep states that sleep is necessary for the body to grow and repair. it explains why we sleep in general
which kind of sleep is characterized by rapid eye movements, dreams and paralyzed muscles and is considered active sleep?
Which kind of sleep is characterized by non paralyzed voluntary muscles and is considered restful sleep?
beta waves, very small and fast
What type of brain waves are seen when people are awake and alert? describe them.
Alpha waves, slightly larger than beta and slower
What type of brain waves are seen when people are relaxed and drowsy? describe them.

theta waves, even slower
When a person enters Non-REM stage 1 of sleep (N1), what type of waves are seen? describe them.
delta waves, slowest and largest
When a person enters NREM stage 3 of sleep, what type of brain waves can been seen? describe them.
NREM stage 4
What type of sleep is considered the deepest sleep?
manifest content
? chapter 4
latent content
? ch 4
activation-information-mode Model
What model displays that information gathered while awake can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams
night terror
experiences of extreme fear and panic during sleep
hypnosis as dissociation
What theory of hypnosis states that the subject has a split awareness, where one stream of communicates with the hypnotist and the external world, and the other is the "hidden observer"?
physical dependence
condition where a persons body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug
psychological dependence
belief that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being
any relatively permanent change is behavior brought about by any experience or practice
the tendency to respond to a stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination
occurs when an organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
conditioned emotional response
an example of classical conditioning in which the unconditioned response is an emotional response, like fear
step 1, attention
which step in observational learning requires the observer to pay attention to the model's behavior and its consequences?
step 2, memory
which step in observational learning requires the observer to retain memory of what happened, as a mental representation?
step 3, imitation
What step of observational learning requires the observer to be capable of reproducing the model's behavior
step 4, motivation
Which step of observational learning requires the learner to have the desire to perform the behavior?
operant conditioning
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to the response
law of effect
Thorndike's ______ states that responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation come more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation
any event or stimulus, that when following a certain response, increases the probability that the response will occur again
positive reinforcement
the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable experience
negative reinforcement
the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
punishment by application (positive punishment)
the punishment of a response by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus
punishment by removal (negative punishment)
the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus
false, it does NOT teach appropriate behavior
True or false: punishment teaches appropriate behavior
learned helplessness
a breakdown in learning ability caused by repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive events
continuous reinforcement
partial reinforcement
fixed ratio
in which schedule of reinforcement is the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same?
fixed interval
in which schedule of reinforcement is the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
variable ration
in which schedule of reinforcement is the schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
variable interval
in which schedule of reinforcement is the time interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event?
an active system that receives info from the senses, organizes and alters info as it stores it away, and then retrieves the info from storage
encoding (putting it in)
memory process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
storage (keeping it in)
memory process of holding onto information for some period of time
retrieval (getting it out)
memory process that involves getting information that is in storages into a form that can be used
What type of memory is visual, and lasts only a fraction of a second?
What type of memory is auditory, and lasts about four seconds, and is a brief memory of something a person just hear
selective attention
ability to focus on only one stimulus (or narrowed range of stimuli) from among all sensory input present--this is how info gets into the short-term memory
maintenance rehearsal
is a way of keeping information in the short term memory but continuing to repeat it
long-term memory
the memory system into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently. has unlimited capacity
nondeclaritive (implicit) memory
type of long term memory including memory for skills procedures, habits and conditioned responses
procedural memory
memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness
declarative (explicit) memory
type of LTM containing info that is conscious and known
semantic memory
declarative memory containing general knowledge
episodic memory
declarative memory containing personal info that is not readily available to others
memory retrieval in which the info retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few external cues
ability to match a piece of info or stimulus to a stored image or fact
elaborative rehearsal
making information meaningful in some way
memory trace
a physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
proactive interference
memory retrieval problem that occurs when older info prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information
retroactive interference
memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older info
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forwards, or the inability to form new long term memories
changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed
What area of the brain is responsible for the formation of new LTMs
After being processed in the motor cortex, procedural memories appear to be store where?
Which type of amnesia is the primary emory difficulty in Alzheimer's
autobiographical memory
the memory for events and facts related to one's personal life story (usually after age 3)
constructive processing
emory retrieval process in which memories are "built," or reconstructed, from info stored during encoding
hindsight bias
the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include new info, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event
source monitering effect
when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another--might be a contributor to the misinformation effect
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand and/or communicate info to others
mental images
mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality
ideas that represent a class or group of object, events, or activities that share common characteristics or attributes
formal concepts
concepts formed by learning the specific rules or features that define it
natural concepts
concepts formed as a result of people's experience in the real world
an example that closely matches the defining characteristics (or common features) of a concept
decision making
process of evaluating alternatives and choosing among them
problem solving
the thoughts and actions required to achieve a certain goal
trial and error (mechanical solutions)
trying on possible solution after another until you find one that works
a systematic step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution, if there is one to be found
solution seems to suddenly come to mind
heuristics ("rule of thumb")
an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem
creating intermediate steps towards a solution
functional fixedness
thinking about objects only in terms of their typical (or most common) function
mental sets
tendency for people to persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
confirmation bias
tendency to search for evidence that supports our perceptions while ignoring evidence to the contrary
the ability ideas that are both novel and valuable
convergent thinking
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer by using previous knowledge and logic
divergent thinking
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
an open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas
the smallest distinctive sound unit in a spoken language
the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word
a system of rules that governs the structure and use of language
rules for determining the meanings for words and sentences
the rules for ordering words into grammatically correct (sensible) sentences
the practical aspects of communication with others, or social "niceties" of language
linguistic relativity hypothesis
the theory that the language a person is speaking largely determines the nature of that persons thoughts
cognitive universalism
page's theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language
the ability to learn from experience, acquire knowledge, and use resources in adapting to new situations or solving problems
who proposed that intelligence is best characterized as general capacity --underlying all branches of intellectual ability is ones underlying fundamental function
analytical intellegence
Sterberg's _____ intelligence is assessed by intelligence tests.

ability to break problems down into component parts from problem solving

creative intelligence
stern berg's _____intellegence states that intelligence that generate ideas/new ways of solving problems, or finding creative ways to solve tasks (divergent thinking)
practical intellegence
intelligence required to use info to get along in life; person adapts to the environment, changes it, or selects a new one so one can succeed
Aptitude (IQ) tests
tests that are intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill
achievement test
tests that are intended to reflect what you have already learned
(mental age)/(chronological age)x100
According to william Stern, the formula of intelligence quotient is IQ=_________
Stanford-Binet test
what test was created by Terman and adapted from Binet's test and used for American children?
Flynn effect
In the past 60 years intelligence scores have steadily risen by an average of 27 points, this effect is a 1/3 point increase per year. What is this effect called?
content validity
extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait it claims to
predictive validity
the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait
after about seven years old
at what point do intelligence scores become stable?