Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn the ____.
relationships among psychology's ideas, theories, and research strategies
Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as ____.
All of the Above
The various schools of thought in psychology have served well as systems to be opposed. In each case, ____ was the consequence.
A new school of thought
Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its ____.
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who ____.
altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers
Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died?
John Watson
Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways?
Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
The term "Zeitgeist" refers to ____.
the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
A school of thought emerges whenever ____.
a group shares a theoretical orientation and investigates similar problems
As a scientific discipline, psychology is ____.
One of the newest and one of the oldest
"The man makes the times," reflects which view of history?
The term historiography refers to ____.
the techniques, principles, and issues involved in historical research
Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy?
An interest in the same types of questions about human nature
In the first years of psychology's emergence as a new discipline, which man determined its direction?
Willhem Wundt
The stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought is called ____.
Which contextual influence on psychology lead to the growth of psychology in the areas of personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology?
Demands generated by the world wars
The _____ theory would support the claim: "Freud was instrumental in discovering psychoanalysis. If not for Freud, no other psychologist would have been able to undercover the human psyche."
When ____ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him.
Francis Sumner
The three contextual forces in the history of psychology were ____.
economic opportunities, wars, and discrimination
Which theory suggests that "the times make the person"?
Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history?
The contextual forces in psychology deal with the ____.
social, economical, and political factors that influenced the field.
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ____ occurred.
Scientific Revolution
In contrast to the events that are studied in science, historical events cannot be ____.
According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has ____.
engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole
Skinner's self-discipline as a student and Freud's being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that ____.
participants may themselves produce biased accounts
In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because ____.
his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory
The terms ego and id, which do not precisely represent Freud's ideas, are examples of ____.
data distorted by translation
Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the ____ to illustrate the same phenomenon.
Tabula rasa
Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?
effects are predictable and measureable
For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce ____.
certainty of knowledge
While Hartley's fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed.
contiguity; repetition
According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____.
Which of the following is a contribution of Rene Descartes to modern psychology?
a mechanistic conception of the body. the theory of reflex action. mind-body interaction. localization of mental function in the brain. All of the choices are correct.
According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain ____.
where the mind and body interact
John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, ____.
the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas
Which British empiricist championed women's rights and condemned the unequal status of women?
John Stuart Mill
The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter is ____.
Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?
Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived?
George Berkeley
Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____.
In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus, he is an intellectual ancestor of ____.
S-R psychology
The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes' ____.
reflex action theory
____, the most radically mechanistic of the British empiricists, claimed that the mind is a machine and that there is no freedom of the will, believing instead that the mind is totally a passive entity and all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations.
James Mill
James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) ___.
____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.
Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that ____.
The mind influenced the body
The notion of secondary qualities was proposed by Locke to explain ____.
the distinction between the physical world and one's experience of it
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____.
Which of the following statements best describes Descartes' dualistic theory of human nature?
The mind and body mutually influence each other's actions
Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of ____.
John Stuart Mill's creative synthesis
The doctrine of ____ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.
innate ideas
Derived ideas ____.
arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
The idea of a house is an example of Descartes' notion of ____.
derived ideas
Why was the mechanical clock a revolutionary invention?
Clocks brought precision, regularity, and predictability to everyday life, which was later developed into a model for science
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____.
What was the significance of the defecating duck?
It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time. It was widely popular and well-known. It was described as the "glory of France." It was one example of the spirit of mechanism. All of the above.
Which theorist believed that people are similar to machines?
The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____.
Newton and Galileo
The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the ____.
Extirpation Method
The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes is a definition of ____.
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is ____.
Whose major contributions to the new psychology involved the two-point threshold and the just noticeable difference?
Ernst Weber
Fechner wrote satirical essays ridiculing medicine and science under the pen name ____.
Dr. Mises
Fechner's flash of insight about the mind-body connection was that there is a(n) ____ relationship between a mental sensation and a material stimulus.
In modern medicine, the cause of a person's dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology.
Electrical stimulation as a method of mapping the cerebral cortex was introduced by ____.
Fritsch and Hitzig
What was the ratio of a weight to its just noticeable difference weight when they were lifted? What was the ratio of a weight to its just noticeable difference weight when the weights were placed in the subject's hands?
1:40; 1:30
The ____ method is described as a type of posthumous extirpation.
According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of ____.
Which of the following is true of Fechner?
He taught at Leipzig. He developed the notion of the pleasure principle. He seriously damaged his eyes by looking at the sun through colored glasses. He was "cured" of some symptoms by eating spiced raw ham soaked in Rhine wine and lemon juice. All of the choices are correct.
Why was David Kinnebrook fired?
His observations differed from his boss'
____ discovered the law, S = K log R.
Weber's Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the ___.
just noticeable difference
While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner ____.
developed the idea of the pleasure principle
What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the "spirit of mechanism"?
the clock
What was the most influential doctrine to modern psychology?
Wundt's term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the ____.
the power of the will to organize the contents of the mind
Külpe's method emphasized all of the following except ____.
Investigating unconscious processes
According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely ____.
Sensation and feelings
Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because ____.
they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
Titchener noted that the first significant advance in the study of learning since Aristotle was ____.
the development of the nonsense syllable
The Gestalt psychologists' best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt's principle of ____.
If you look at a rose and observe, "The rose is red," you are observing the ____.
Mediate experience
Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its ____.
Use of the experimental method
The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to ____.
The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables was to ____.
Control for previous learning
Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt's experimental conditions?
Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to ____.
the process of organizing mental elements into a whole
Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe's view is known as ____.
Imageless thought
For Brentano, the primary research method was ____.
Stumpf's method of observation was ____.
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he ____.
successfully challenged Wundt's claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt's approach, claimed that psychology should ____.
study mental processes or functions and not mental structure
Research suggests that many psychology historians consider ____ to be the most important psychologist of all time
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was ____.
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women:
Were too pure to smoke
Which of Titchener's basic elements of consciousness does not possess clearness?
Affective States
Titchener vigorously cautioned experimental psychologists about the stimulus error, that is, about ____.
Describing the observed object rather than the experience of it
As more and more students became drawn to Titchener's lectures at Cornell, he ____.
He became less actively engaged in laboratory research
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including ____.
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?
When Titchener returned to Oxford with his doctorate from Wundt, his colleagues ____.
were skeptical of the use of scientific approaches to philosophical questions
The influence of mechanism on Titchener is exemplified in his ____.
use of the chemistry term reagents instead of observers
According to the textbook, a significant contribution of structuralism was ____.
its service as a target for criticism
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definition of ____.
Titchener's research led him to conclude that affective states had only ____ dimension(s); namely ____.
one; pleasure/displeasure
In their evaluation of Titchener's theoretical viewpoint toward the end of his career, Schultz and Schultz conclude that he was ____.
as flexible and open to change as scientists are supposed to be
By the 1920s the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ____.
The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are ____.
his experimental method and a strong position to protest
The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of which of the following?
Titchener's graduate student observers were instructed to ignore certain classes of words called ____ words.
____ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Titchener argued that psychology is unique among the sciences because ____.
psychology alone is dependent on experiencing persons
Subjects in Titchener's laboratory were asked to ____.
swallow a stomach tube record their sensations and feelings during urination and defecation make notes of their sensations and feelings during sexual intercourse attach measuring devices to their bodies to record their physiological responses during sexual intercourse All of the choices are correct
Titchener's descriptors of sensations did NOT include which of the following?
What is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States was established by ____.
A unique aspect of Woolley's dissertation research was the ____.
attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments?
The study of the total organism as it functions in its environment was the focus of the system posited by ____.
The force behind Howard University's becoming a leading institution for the education of African American psychologists was ____.
Synthetic as used in the name "synthetic philosophy" refers to ____.
Combining or synthesizing
James's term for his debilitating disorder was ____.
According to ____, the goal of psychology is to study how the mind enables and facilitates the adaptation of the organism to its environment.
For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is ____.
Adaptive and essential for an organisms survival
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he ____.
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology
James's position on psychophysics was to ____.
accept it as a component of psychology to be studied by experimentation
Who guided functionalism into becoming a formal school by giving it the focus and stature to earn respect in the scientific community?
Who succeeded Angell as head of the University of Chicago's department of psychology, under which functionalism at Chicago reached its peak?
William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate ____.
that the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements
According to Woodworth, psychological knowledge must begin with ____.
The stimulus and response
Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association?
The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the ____.
recapitulation theory
For Angell, functionalism was to study the adaptive utility of ____.
ames described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that ____.
A science of psychology did not exist
Wundt's most important contribution to psychology was ____.
"selling" psychology to the scientific community describing psychology as an experimental science beginning the first psychological journal his publications, which are still widely read today All of the above
Wundt's productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged ____.
2.2 pages per day for over 50 years
The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ____.
In Wundt's laboratory, introspection was used to assess ____.
Immediate Experience
The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.
Wundt's theory of feelings was based on ____.
His own introspection
Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?
Feelings or emotions lack clearness because ____.
if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears.
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____.
Charles Darwin and Alfred and Wallace
Toward the end of Titchener's career, he came to favor the ____ method instead of the ____ method.
phenomenological; introspective
Ebbinghaus measured the rate of human learning by ____.
counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____.
Darwin's evidence
To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method?
The questionnaire
In a public debate on evolution, ____ refuted the points made against evolution by ____.
Huxley; WIlberforce
Which of the of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener?
Functional psychology claimed that Wundt's and Titchener's approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes.
In addition to introspection, another criticism of Titchener's system was its ____.
Artificiality and Sterility
Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics?
Intensity, duration, and sense modality
The ultimate fate of Wundt's laboratory at Leipzig was that it ____.
was destroyed by allied bombing raids during WWII