MAIN causes of WWI
>Nationalism: countries that believe they are superior to others and willing to fight over their pride >Imperialism: the scramble for Africa only lasted until Eur. powers got all the land and they wanted more, so they started to fight each other (ex. Germany and France over Moracco b/c strait of Gibraltar and gateway to Med. Sea) >Militarism: Germany started to build up navy to be at Britain's level. Britain scared that getting too powerful also build up on new vessels called "dreadnoughts" (Germany had a HUGE army prepared for war too) >Alliances: Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, and Italy Triple Entente= Russia, France, and Brtain (sandwiched in the Triple Alliance) Economic Competition: competition over resources --> manufacturing trade (markets) --> $$$$$ industrialization and selling goods ****SPARK TO WWI: assassination of Archduke Ferdinand****
Black Hand
the group of young Serbs that killed the Archduke Fernidand. the actual killer was 19 yrs old. (Gavrilo Princip) >Serbia wanted Bosnia to be part of Greater Serbia = reason for called assassination >Colonel Apis =leader and intiated attack in Serbia
Austrian Archduke Ferdinand
>the assassination of the leader of Austria-Hungary led to WWI b/c Germany was an ally and had to go in to fight the Serbs (who were ordered to kill him), then Serbia called in their ally Russia, Germany called in Italy, Russia called in France, and soon Britain came into the mix.
Schlieffen Plan
Germany will attack and defeat France quickly and the rush over to fight Russia, since it always lagged behind >this plan failed with the Battle of Marne >battle very important b/c put Germany in **TWO FRONT WAR**
Allied vs. Central Powers
France, Britain, and Russia (U.S. joins in later) vs. Germany, Austria (and Italy, although it didn't really fight in WWIit was part of the alliance).
>no progress is made (neither side wins much) >happened with trench warfare b/c of Dead Man's Zone b/c of all the new weapons
Trench warfare
>both sides fought in trenches >more men died due to trench foot, rats, etc. then actual fighting b/c no one wanted to go into Dead Man's Zone and die to the new guns/weapons
US Entry into WWI
>Zimmerman Note >Germany wanted to keep the US from entering the war b/c Germany was so close to winning against France and Britain >Germany bribed Mexico by saying if it started a war with US to keep it busy, it would give back the territory that the US stole (on a side note, also the bombing of the citizens' liner (but this only angers the Americans)
>displaying one-sided info. >used this to get people to go into total war (women at the homefront and that women on the poster; Uncle Sam and "I want You") >used to demonize the enemy
Total War
>everyone supports the cause: a. rationing consumer goods b. women picking up the mens' jobs (factory workers, doctors, lawyers, etc.) at the homefront c. kids buying war bonds
Treaty of Versailles
>Germany "formally" blamed for WWI (Germany signed it) >reparations, division of land (so couldn't regain power), restrictions on military, lost all colonies >conformed to Wilson's 14th pt: to keep peace
Czar Nicholas II/Romonovs
>last of the czar in Russia >unaware of changing conditions in Russia >forced to step down from throne after the March Revolution. >Wife of Nicholas II = Alexandria >ran the gov. while he was out motivating troops on the home front >believed to have an affair with Rasputin b/c "healed" Alexis >put Rasputin in a high place of power, which many did not like
>a "holy man" that helped to relieve Alexis, the Czar's hemophiliac son *For his doing, Tsarina Alexander respected him greatly; it is believed they had an affair **His image to the public= a sex man, dirty, not trust worthy; the public did not like him and thought he was a German spy trying to overthrow the gov. >he gained power in the gov. (through the Tsarina as she was in control of Russia b/c Nicholas was at the front w/ the soldiers) and gave some high positions to his friends >THE MAN WOULDN'T DIE: Felix (possibly gay and was turned down by Rasputin) tried cyanide, then shot him, he is shot more as Rasputin runs out to the court yard. According to his autopsy, he dies by drowning in the river they threw him in
>more "serious" form of socialism in which nothing is privately owned >no social classes, everyone is equal >everything owned by "the people"
>Leader of the Bolsheviks >renamed Russia: Soviet Union= 1st communist state. >pulled out of WWI >began many reforms.
>the communists; the red shirts >Lenin's group >seized power in 1917 (during WWI)
Peace, Land, and Bread
Lenin's slogan that really spoke to the workers/peasants (but more workers (Mao was the peasants' guy). Lenin proposed an idea, and people were all ears after Czar Nicholas II
New Economic Plan
Lenin turning USSR slightly capitalists by allowing some privately owned business. >reason why USSR was really socialists >this needed to happen in order for USSR to survive after WWI (allowed for some profits, but overall seizure of crops of individuals did not occur)
gov. that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of life (public and private) >Stalin ran Russia as a totalitarian state. * he used terror to "persuade" the people and indoctrination to brain wash them.
Joseph Stalin
>=cold, hard, impersonal >had absolute control of the Communist Party in 1928 *=totalitarian leader >wanted to pull Russia out of the slum by increasing production, so he used 5-year plans and he used terror to crush his opposition. >used indoctrination to brainwash his people >used propaganda to keep his believers on his side by making his points look very good (women's rights, minority rights, no one starves in Russia, no one's homeless in Russia, etc.)
5 year plans
Stalin's plans to increase production/industrialism and bring Russia out of its rep. of lagging >this worked, but then people started lying b/c they couldn't fulfill the demands of Stalin and didn't want to be charged or killed. It became quantity over quality: ex. shirts at the end of the month might have missed 8 buttons b/c didn't have time.
command economy
>where the government makes all the decisions *Stalin was very competitive with the West, so why should ordinary citizens have any say?
collective farms
large gov. farms, so he controls them and the workers definitely cannot earn any sort of profit (in food or money); that would be CAPITALISM!!!
great purge
>killed 8-12 million of the Communist Party members b/c Stalin was a very paranoid man and thought that those 8-12 million members opposed him
Mao Zedong
>a helper in organizing the Chinese Communist Party >he was more focused on the peasant farmers and their rights where as Lenin was more focused on the workers' rights
communists vs. nationalists
>Mao Zedong helped to organized the Chinese Communist Party in 1920s >wanted to get the rural farmers their rights and equality >used guerilla warfare against the Nationalists (that fled to Taiwan; led by Sun Yixian)
Chinese Civil War
war b/t Communists (Mao Zedong) and Nationalists (Jiang Jieshi) >the communists seized control and drove the nationalists to Taiwan
The Long March
> Communist Party endure a 6,000 mile long flee to northern China *it provided inspiration and momentum
an attorney that was educated in Britain and while in S. Africa he was ordered to move out of 1st class into 3rd (for he was Indian and "colored") or he would be booted of the train. Naturally, he was astounded and did not comply, so he was kicked off. *This led to his epiphany: why does he not have the same rights as the white man. And more so, he is even a rich Indian at least...
Civil Disobedience
>non-violent _____________ ___________= peacefully breaking UNJUST laws and ACCEPTING the consequences. *it could not be laws about murdering people, and fighting back when arrested or being beat was not accepted by those who on Gandhi's side >Ways to non-violently make a point: 1. Boycott British goods and emphasize Indian products (wearing the Indian cloth for clothes) 2. strikes-refusal to work/protesting 3. Salt March-Gandhi marches to the Indian Ocean to make salt; an illegal act. >How it can be successful? *large # of people *unity in belief *strong leader ****MEDIA (make the enemy look bad to the rest of the world)
Gandhi and his followers boycotted British goods; they would not wear their clothes (wore silk gowns); would not buy from their shops, etc.
>took place at the Hindu temple in the Punjab Region (Amritsar) >Indians were upset about the unjust laws and gathered in this holy, peaceful place for festival so they can reason on why they don't get the same rights and what they will do to change that ****The Indians discuss the ROWLATT ACTS that England passed forbidding them to have these meetings >England attacks on these innocent, unarmed people as they think that they've already given India a warning. *This makes England look bad to the rest of the world, for the Indians were merely talking...
Salt March
>about a 4,000 mile journey for Gandhi and his followers to the Indian Ocean where they would reclaim some of the salt that was rightfully India's, but Britain took away and used it for their own wealth, making it illegal for Gandhi and his followers to do this >On the journey, Gandhi and the 1,000s of followers were met by happy faces and flower petals being "tossed" to them b/c everyone knew that Gandhi was trying to change India in their favor. >At arrival upon the Indian Ocean, all of Gandhi's followers applauded in joy.
Weimar Republic
>gov. of Germany >failed due to could not get a majority for representation, inflation due to reparations
>caused by reparations for WWI and more money was printed so Germany could pay off the damage
Germany was blamed 100% for WWI and had to pay the damage for all the countries it fought against.
The Great Depression
Due to inflation, $1 had absolutely no value and everyone was poor and could not afford anything. (Remember the pictures where kids played with stacks of bills, people traded actual items b/c worth more than the money)
>led by Benito Mussolini >the "brown shirts"
>led by Adolph Hitler >set fire to the Riechstag and blamed the communists so could get majority of the votes and become ruling party >the "black shirts"
Nuremberg Laws
laws that prevented Jews from being in positions of power (lawyers, teachers, doctors); prevented them from being able to marry Germans and other races, eat at the same restaurants, etc. Hitler wanted to ostracize the Jews.
>persecution of the Jewish religion and the fact that it was blamed for WWI and they were inferior to others >progoms >had to live in ghettos (all their high status jobs taken away and homes were taken by worthier Germans)
>Britain and France did this b/c WWI was so costly that they could not afford to jump into another war. (US held out too)
Munich Conference
>conference where European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further (not take Czechoslovakia) >Germany ended up getting both Sudetenland in the end and Czech.
Japanese Expansion
Japanese Empire attacked British, Dutch,... empires in Asia/Pacific
Axis Countries
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Allied Countries
Britain (Winston Churchill), Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin), and United States (Franklin Roosevelt)
>literally meaning "lightning war" >practice of getting in and out using ample infantry, weapons, tanks, airplanes. All the planes and tanks would attack and then finish the enemy off with the overwhelming amount foot soldiers >GERMANY's tactic (at first)
Battle of Britain
>took place in London >first battle since battle of 1066 >bombings by Germany
Pearl Harbor
>**reason that U.S. enters WWII** >Japanese attacked our ships b/c we stopped aid due to their expansion and taking power over Asian colonies
Battle of Stalingrad
>Stalin was not going to give into Germany on this battle b/c this was HIS city
the systematic murder 11 million people (6 million being Jews; 5 million gypsies, homosexuals, blacks--anyone who was not Aryan.
the killing people all of the same race
>only Jews lived in these over-crowded, run down, segregated communities. This was preparation to soon be taken to the camps. >Jews could not hold old jobs and couldn't leave freely etc. Taken in groups if had an outside job that was necessary (brick workers)
The Final Solution
the extermination of the Jews
concentration camps
the camps in which the Jews were kept and worked until they died or were killed
atomic bombs
>unofficial ending of WWII >led to the arms race b/t US and USSR >cause many radiation problems
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
>2 Japanese cities that were bombed
Cold War
>hot war = direct fighting > ____ ____= a war without direct fighting. Instead, it is one that has >great tension >hostility >propaganda >spying >**Battles are fought indirectly thru other countries (proxy wars)**
Iron Curtain
>separated the Warsaw Pact from Nato >cut Europe in half >many devastating effects and countries really saw how other countries viewed them
not letting other countries fall to communism (influence)
Truman Doctrine
for containment to be successful, funded Civil Wars in countries (Greece and Turkey) against the communists
Marshall Plan
give money to any country hurt by the war. >in return, the country must (1) buy US goods (2) work together to make sure the money is not spent on the same items in every country
North Atlantic Treaty Organization--the countries that strongly oppose communism (the military alliance)
Warsaw Pact
to counter NATO, this military alliance was created
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
>the Berlin wall that separated W. and E. (both parts controlled respectively) Berlin. The west gave aid to the east Berliners, but that had to be improved into the more expensive and time consuming ___________. Planes were filled with tons of goods in America and flew over to E. Berlin and were dropped by parachutes or landed in safe airport areas.
>launched in 1957 by USSR (US. did not launch one until 1958 --> continued until 1980s) >it was a race against the US to show Communist superiority in space technology Effects: **rocket could launch a satellite and have a nuclear warhead and it could get to other continents)** **more nuclear weapons built up on both sides** (enough to destroy earth by 1960)
Mao Zedong
**COMMUNISM HAS SPREAD TO CHINA** >communist leader= ____ __________ >China got rid of its social classes and supports the peasants -->he has a lot of support b/c many people= peasants and he promises land and reform >experience army and guerillas
Great Leap Forward
>the first 5 year plan >it was industrial and agricultural to make China stronger >people would work more and sleep less in order to fulfill orders
Cultural Revolution
>Mao feels not everyone is truly communist and have become too relaxed. >his Red Guard (dedicated teens/children) take out all the educated people (teachers, lawyers, doctors) b/c it seems they are above peasants **Causes problems: dangerous and unsuccessful births --> death**
Red Guard
the dedicated followers of Mao that were TEENS/CHILDREN >this was possible b/c schools shut down (one: for more work; two: no teachers to teach b/c Cultural Rev.)
Korean War
war b/t N. and S. Korea in which North supported by USSR and south by US
38th Parallel
>currently border b/t N. and S. Korea >most heavily guarded border in the war >this was the war line which constantly moved throughout the Korean War
Vietnam War
long war b/t N. and S. Vietnam (n= support of USSR and S= support of US). Vietnamization took place here-removing American troops and putting in S. Vietnamese >BIG loss for America
Domino Theory
>theory that if one country fell to communism, countries around it/influenced by it will fall too
Ho Chi Minh
leader of communists N. Vietnam
Fidel Castro
>communist leader of Cuba >succeeded Batista
Cuban Revolution
Castro and guerilla fighters fought against the dictatorship of Baptista
Cuban Missile Crisis
>closest the war has ever gotten to nuclear war >only one person died and it was a 13 day event >USSR supplied missiles to Cuba, which is 90 miles away from US and pointed right at US (this was to counter missiles in Turkey) >U.S. put a quarantine/blockade around Cuba in order to stop this trade >diplomatic negotiations solved the problem in which neither country wanted to compromise
the cooling (tensions) of the Cold War. Presidents Jimmy Carter and Nixon achieved this, but then Reagan came into offfice and the war heated up again.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
reasons: >oil >**to replace the pre-existing communist gov. that was interfered by the U.S (sided with the Mujaheddin)
Mikhail Gorbachev
>first president of USSR that allowed criticizing of the gov. >first president to visit US >aka Gorbi
>restructuring market economy to revitalize and open it up to the people
>openness >no censorship, people could criticize gov.
process of moving toward democracy (for better representation)
>Lech Walesa led the protests >Solidarity (first independent trade block of ______________)
Vaclev Havel, former writer and human activist that wrote about Czechoslovakia and exposed all the wrong doings that occurred b/c of communism
East Germany
>with the falling of the Berlin wall, marked end of Cold War and falling of communism >East Germans and West Germans could unite >conditions got better for East Germans
Boris Yeltsin
>first Russian president (changes name back) >turned everyone against Gorbi by promising reform and such, when much not delivered >popularity made him win first formal elections
Fall of Communism
>marked by fall of Berlin Wall >marked by fall of Soviet Union >1989
>with the fall many other countries wondering why not getting rights and such >ethnic cleansing >caused uprisings b/c __________ had a Serb pop in the middle of the country
ethnic cleansing
mass killing of an ethnic group by another, more superior one
>British colony of _______ had two religious groups. >Muslims wanted their own country (P_____) >but many people had to be moved >partition caused unrest b/t the two countries still seen today due to the many deaths and religious clashes
>two religious groups of British colony of India >M_____ considered general group (wanted to branch out to Pakistan)
South Africa
>once gained independence, troubled gov. >Apartheid-separation of people based on race (white superior to black) >Nelson Mandela-protester released 27 yrs after his imprisonment to become first elected (black) president of SA
>these two countries both have spiritual ties to the holy city of Jerusalem and claim it belongs to them >much unrest >dangerous >Israeli checkpoints everywhere