born in spain, high gov position, controlled wealth and power with creols in colonies, formend a tiny precentage of the population
spainards born in latin America, could rise to high positions in army, couldent hold high level political office
mixed european and african
mixed european and indian
were at the bottom of the social ladder
were enslaved
toussaint l' ouverture
formerly enslaved, was unfamiliar with military and diplomatic matters, even so he rose to become a skilled general and diplomat, by 1801 he had taken control of the entire island and frees all enslaved africans, french troops wanted to remove him from power he agreed to halt the revoultion if france would end slavery, french soon accused him of planning another uprising, they siezed him and sent him to prison in the french alps where he died in april 1803
jean-jacques dessalines
toussaints lieutenant, took up the fight for freedom, he demanded the colony an indpendent country, it the the first black colony to free itself from european controll, called country hati which ment mountianous land
simos bolivar
wealthy venezuelan creole, nicknamed liberator, his voulenteer army of revolutionaries suffered defeats, twice he had to go into exile, his turning point came in august 1819 when he led over 2000 soldiers on a daring mission through the andes into colombia, he took the spanish army in bogota completly by suprise and won a decisive victory by 1821 he had won venezulelas independence, then he marched south into ecudaor and met jose de san martin together they would decide the furture of the latin america revoolutionary movement
jose de san martin
argentinain, he led an army on a march aross the andes to chle, he freed chile with the help of bernardo o higgins, he planned to drive the remainig spanish forces out of lima peru, he needed a much larger force and dicussed it with bolivar when they met, he left his army for bolivar to command, bolivars army went on to defeat the spanish at the battle of ayacucho, the spanish colonies in LA won their freedom, venezuela,columbia,panama, and ecudaor were united into a country called gran columbia
miguel hidalgo
a priest in a small village of dolores, took the 1st step toward indp., believed in enlightened ideals, issued a rebellion against spanidh called grito de dolores, his indian and mestizos followers began a march toward mexico city with 80000 men, the uprising of the lower classes alarmed spainsh army and creoles who feared the loss of their property control of the land and their lives, the army defeated him in 1811
jose maria morelos
led the rev for 4 years however in 1815 a creole officer Agustin de iturbide defeated him
Agustin de iturbide
defeated padre morelos, proclaimed indp in 1821, he declared himself emperor and refused to recgnoize the declarations of indp by central america from spain and mexico, he was overthrown in 1823
effects of LA wars
trade disrupted, cities and courtrysides devastated, poverty increased
challenges after LA wars
geography of central/south america, little experience in gov, scoial class structure
brazils independence
it occured without violent upheavals or bloodshead, rio de janiero became the capital of the portuguese empire, for 14 years the portuguess ran their empire from brazil, after napos defeat king john and the portuguess gov returned to portugol 6 years later, dom pedro king james son stayed behing in brazil, king john plannes to make brazil a colony again however many brazilians could not accept the return to colonial status, in 1822 creoles demanded brazils indpnc from portugal, 8000 brazilians signed a pitition asking dom pedro to rule he agreed , on sept 7 1822 he declared brazils indpenendence
usually wealthy property owners and nobility, they argued for protecting the tradition monarchies of europe (no change)`
moaslty middle class business leaders and merchants, they wanted to give more power to elected paraliments,but only the eduated and landowners would vote
favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. they believed thats govs should practice the idels of the french rev:liberty equality and brotherhood.(wanted all ppl to have a say in the gov
the belief the ppls greates loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation who share a common culture and history
nation state
defends the nations territory and way of life and it represents the nation to the rest of the world(group of ppl with own gov)
bonds of nation states
history culture nationality language religion territory
1830's rebbelions
the old order arranged at the congress of vienna was breaking down, liberals and nationalist throughtout europe were revolting against conservative govs, nationalist riots broke out against dutch rule in belgium brussels they soon declared indpendence, in italy nationalist worked to unite the many seperate states on the italian pensula, soon metternich sent troops to restore order in italy, the poles living under the rule of russia revolted in warsaw, russian armies took a year to crush the polish uprisings, by the mid 18302 the order seemed to restablish itself but the apperance of stability did not last long
1848 revolution
ethnic uprisings erupted throught europe. after an mob in vienna clashed with police metternich resigned and liberal uprisings broke out throughout the austrian empire. in budapest louis kossuth called for a parilment and self gov for hungary. and in praue czech liberals demanded bohemian indpenedence.european politic were seesawing. many liberal gains were lost to conserative in a year. 1 country after another the revolutionaries failed to unite themselves or their nations. conservatives regained their power and by 1849 europe had practically returned to the conservativism that had controlled the gov b4
alexander the 3rd
alexander the 2nds successor, tightend czarist controll over the country, encouraged industrial development to expand, lagged behind europe, resulted in nationalism
alexander the 2nd
decided to move russia toward modernization and social change, believed that his reforms would allow russia to compete with western europe for world peace, he tried to free serfs but it went only halfway, he was assassinated by terrorist in 1881
louis napoloen
nephew of napoleon bonaparte, won presidential election, took tiltle of emperor napoleon the 3rd, frenh ppl welcomed him as a strong rule who would bring peace to france, he built railroads encouraged industrization and promoted an ambitious program of public works, because of him unemployment decreased in france and the country experienced real prosperty
wealthy landowners that were conservative and opposed liberals
otto van bismarck
violated constitution, expanded territory, formed an alliance with austria, went to war with denmark in which he gained schleswig and holstein, created problems with austria over the border of those 2 countrys, austria declared war on prussia known as the 7 weeks war, prussia won and annexes land
politics of reality, it is used to describe tough power politics with no room for idealism
forcing russian culture upon other ethnicities
camillo di cavour
prime minister, wealthy, made alliance, gained territory,GOALS: control northern italy for sardina, austria caused problems but allied with france, nap the 3rd helped drive austria out of venetia and lombardy, war with austria; sardina took all narthern italy except venetia
giuseppe garibaldi
cavour started helping nationalist rebels on southers italy(unite southern italy). but _______ _________ was a nationalist rebel leader with his followers the red shirts, he captures sicily, sardina-piedmont,naples,election= voters agreed to unite sardinia, he agreed to step down and let king emmanuel the 2nd rule
franco prussian war
german southern states were independent from prussia control. bismarck wanted to wage war to gain control, he made a false telegram from france, king willhelm seemed to insult france. france declared war july 19 1870, prussians invaded narthern france,captured nap the 3rd and 83000 prisoners, lasted 4 months,hunger forced surrender,final step in german unification,1871 captures versailes wilhelm 1st of prussia crowned emperor
seven weeks war
austria declared war on prussia, prussia wins and annexes land RESULTS: prussia controls northern germany, eastern and western parts join, 1867 states of the north join to form the german confederation
a gov ban on trade with another nation, sometime backed by military force
Birth rate
the proportion of births to the total pop in a place in a givin time, usually expressed as a quanity per 1000 of pop
death rate
the ratio of deaths in an area to the pop of that area, expressed per 100 per year
free trade
trade between nations without economice restrictions or barriers
infant mortality rate
number of infants who are born alive but die before one year of age
gdp per capita
the gdp on a purchasing power basis divided by pop
population growth/natural increase
birth rate minus death rate
developed nation
a nation that has acheived industrialization, a market economy, widespread ownership of private property and a realitivy high standard of living
emerging nation
(less developed nation/ developing nation) a nation that has lower levels of argricultural and industrial production lower saving and incestment, few resourses and lower per capita gdp than developed nations
standard of living
the overall economic situation in which ppl live
literacy rate
those over 15 who can read and write
economic policy of restraining trade between nations through methods such as tariffs on imported goods and restrictive quotas
life expectancy
the average age a person in a country is expected to live
trade deficit
negative balance of trade
trade surplus
positive balance of trade
unemployment rate
the precentage of the labor force that is unemployed but actively looking for work