early nomadic confederacy, around same time as Han Dynasty, their raids of northern China led to the negotiation (recognized as a political equal, leader princess marriage, goods, agreed not to attack). One of the earlier nomadic groups to participate in the tribute system, good example of why the tribute system was used and how it worked
Emperor Wendi
Sui emperor (ruled from 581-604), had many monasteries constructed, part of state support for Buddhism, used it to justify military campaigns, great wealth of monasteries. Helped with growth of Buddhism during the Sui dynasty, helped the foundation of culture.
Chinese Buddhism
most important gift from India, China was launching pad for Korea and Japan, entered through the Silk Roads, 1st and 2nd century CE, Han dynasty limited it, present among foreign merchants and monks, took root in 300-800 CE with collapse of Han, provided comfort for a collapsing society, added some Chinese glares, resentment of wealth, rise of Confucianism led to its fall, played a role in reformation of Confucianism. Shows how China has also taken traits from nearby states, the values from 3rd wave civilizations are still prominent today, greatly influenced Chinese way of life
Izumi Shikibu
Japanese poet, born in 975, grew up in imperial court, high literary education, married with many affairs, lady-in-waiting for Empress Akiko, experiences with love and Buddhist values led to understanding or impermanence, best known for teen writing. Important woman at the time, well educated, deep understanding, well known and important poet
the way of the warrior, used by samari in Japan who had great skill in martial arts, bravery, loyalty, endurance, honor, and preference for death over surrender. This way was caused by decentralized political power, part of military forces developed by local authorities, values used in future, even World War I with war with Japan
Shotoku Taishi
lead the effort to turn Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state, prominent aristocrat, launched a series of missions to China, learned the Chinese ways and incorporated them into Japanese culture. Led the efforts for the 17 article constitution, Japanese ruler was Chinese-style emperor, encouraged Buddhism and confucianism
chu nom
variation of Chinese writing developed by the Vietnamese, basis for an independent national literature and a vehicle for writing of most education women, means southern script. Reflected the larger patterns of southeast Asian culture distinguishing it from China, helped many women's writing
1400s, independent phonetic alphabet, for writing Korean, gradually took hold. Evidence for how Korea maintained a distinctive culture and separate political existence, this was a move toward greater cultural independence, used for private correspondence in popular fiction and among women, first rejected by men accustomed to using prestigious Chinese characters
Silla dynasty (Korea)
allied with Tang dynasty to bring political unity to Korea, sharp military resistance when China tried to assimilate Koreans, later established tributary, 688-900, helped Korea maintain independence, goal to turn Korea into a mini Tang China, took in Buddhism, resisted other change. It remained largely independent even in the shadow of China, used some Chinese aspects, allied with tributary relations
Khitan/Jurchen people
established states that encompassed parts of northern China and the steppes in the north, picked up pieces when a state broke down, Khitan from 907-1125, Jurchen from 1115-1234, needed Song dynasty for gifts via silk roads. Example of the steppe nomads who weren't too interested in ruling China, but rather extorting goods from China, encompassed northern China in Song dynasty
tribute system
China was considered the "middle kingdom" superior to "barbarian" neighbors, Chinese saw themselves as self-sufficient, required non-Chinese rulers to acknowledge Chinese superiority, the Chinese emperor would allow for trade and provide gifts. This system kept large, powerful nomadic groups from invading. In return for gifts, nomads agreed to refrain from attacking, and this is how people go access to trade in China
foot binding
tightly wrapping the feet of young girls, usually breaking bones and causing intense pain, during and after Song dynasty, began among dancers and courtesans in 10th or 11th century CE, began with elite families and later became widespread, image of female beauty. Distinguished women in China from their "barbarian" counterparts and elite from commoners and peasants, expression of the tightening patriarchy in the Song dynasty
economic revolution
waterways connecting cities bound the country economically, industrial production in the iron industry soared, technological innovations such as printing and gunpowder were introduced, women became more restricted. The growing economy and trade built the foundation for the future, iron growth led to many inventions used worldwide, printing press helped education, gunpowder diffused
Song dynasty capital, more than 1 million people, specialized markets, actors performing, unique restaurants, various inns, specialized agencies, schools for musicians, clubs, supplied by canal system. Contributed to China being the most urbanized country in the world, huge population, center of a very large trading network
Song dynasty
960-1279, "golden age" of arts and literature, rise of neo-Confucianism, revived confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism influence, state structure of bureaucracy, revived examination system, strengthening patriarchy, trade and transport with canal systems, foot binding. Productive agriculture, influential state structure, large population growth to 120 million, innovations such as printing and gunpowder
Tang dynasty
618-907, built on Sui, part of the "golden age" of arts and literature, Confucian based examination system, bureaucracy with 6 major ministries, examination system revived by printing press. Their state structures lasted for thousands of years, set standards of excellence in poetry, landscape painting, and ceramics, 6 major ministries: personnel, finance, rites, army, justice, and public works, extended canal systems, 50 or 60 million population growth
Sui dynasty
589-618, China regained its unity under this dynasty, emperors solidified the canal system, linked north and south economically and contributed to prosperity, basis for Tang and Song, Chines and nomadic leaders, futile military, Buddhism controlled by state. It reunified China, created systems that contributed to future economic prosperity, reinforced the canal system, basis for Tang and Song dynasties, golden age of arts and literature