A multi-movement composition that shares material between the movements.
Program Music
music that reflects more than purely the music itself.
Song Cycles
groups of songs that were related to one another in a narrative fashion, or more freely by sharing a mood or emotion.
Idée Fixe
Berlioz—theme, or melody associated with a character / changing situation
Bel Canto
operatic style which emphasized beautiful, lyrical, and often elaborate melodic passages for the voice.
rebirth of Italian nationalism (first period of Verdi's creative life)
operatic motif associated with a person, thing, or mood. returns throughout a piece.
'combination of the arts.' a restoration of early Greek dramatic concepts. (wagner)
Music Drama
a term that replaced 'gesamtkunstwerk,' thankfully.
city in germany where Wagner designed his own theater—there are music festivals held here each summer.
Brahms-Wagner Split
europe divided between 'absolute' music and 'music drama'
Opéra Bouffe
comic operas often based on historical or mythological topics
Georges Bizet
pianist—won 'prix de rome' in 1857. composed "Carmen"
Symphonic Poem
Coined by Liszt for a one movement, programmatic piece for orchestra that conveyed an idea through themes
Thematic Transformation
Liszt—adapting themes to different situations.
Liszt performing solo piano pieces in a concert hall.
Concert Etude
19th century etudes performed in concert.
'night piece' short piano piece, highly embellished melody, contemplative mood (romantic period)
instrumental piece inspired by narrative poetry
Grand Opera
serious opera, sung throughout
genre of musical theater combining dialogue with background music.
presenting everyday people in familiar situations, often quite brutally.
German. studied w/ Haydn. Composed symphonies, piano sonatas, string quartets, Fedelio-only operas, pastoral and choral pieces. developed deafness.
Beethoven's creative life
Classical, Romantic (innovative, popular), Baroque (smaller audience, deaf)
Austrian. 1000 works before death at 31. 'unfinished symphony' in C. over 600 'lieder'
Hungarian. pianist. influenced by paganini. first recitals. early music is complex and showy. later music anticipates impressionism. used thematic trans. cyclic, prog. music. invented symphonic poem (les preludes)
German composer / critic. married Clara Wieck. wrote descriptive piano suites—kinderscenen, carnaval, papillons, davidsbundlertanze. wrote song cycle Dichterliebe.
Polish. piano composer. influenced by bach, mozart, bel canto opera, polish dance music. wrote etudes and operas for piano. 24 preludes
Polonaises and Mazurkas
polish dance music
german. child prodigy / wealthy. pianist. revived bachs music performing st matthew passion. wrote Midsummer Night's Dream Hebrides. No. 3 Scottish, No. 4 Italian, No. 5 Reformation.
French. arranger. dramatic music, no chamber or piano music. Symphonie Fantastique. idée fixe. loved Harriet Smithson. wrote a book on instrumentation / orchestration.
German. 'heir to beethoven.' 4 symphonies (1st took 20 years) friends with schumann. represents 'absolute music'
'Great Symphony'
Schubert—post-mortem, in C
'Unfinished Symphony'
Schubert—b minor.
Sym. No. 5
Beethoven mvt. 1—dun dun dun dunnnnn mvt. 3—slower variations on the above rhythmic motif.
Sonata No. 23 in f minor
Beethoven fluttering piano.
Schubert Ostinato piano intro—male vocalist enters.
Les Preludes
Liszt string intro. winds join. orchestral—strings arpeggiating.
Dichterliebe: Im wunderschönen
Schumann Higher Register Piano, male vocalist enters. (listen for "im wunderschönen") third audio example is quicker.
Ballade No. 1 in g minor
Chopin Starts with Octaves Virtuosic. Soft piano recording.
Concerto for Violin mvt. 3
Mendelssohn question; is a violinist killing it right now? yes? it's the Concerto for Violin mvt. 3
Symphonie Fantastique Op. 14: mvt. 4 'March to the Gallows'
intro w/ percussion. unison strings—many descending lines. glorious sounding brass!
Sym. No. 2: Mvt. 1
Brahms Begins with soft strings. Nearly a 'swung' rhythm.
A German Requiem: VI
Brahms Listen for a Choir
Tristan und Isolde
Wagner begins with descending line Subdued male vocalist enters.
La Traviata: Act 1
Verdi Vocalist solo at first. Female joins. Powerful choir later on.
La Bohéme: Act 1
Puccini Female vocalist. Flute countermelody at points.