Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning psychological skills training?
PST is only for problem athletes; PST is only for elite athletes; PST will provide quick-fix solutions to problems
Which of the following is NOT a phase in PST?
Intervention Phase
When new psychological skills are being learned, how long should they generally be practiced?
3-5 days a week, 15-30 mins a day
Which of the following is (are) characteristic of INEFFECTIVE consultants that athletes note in interviews with sport psychologists?
they lack sport-specific knowledge and they rely on a "canned" approach when implementing mental skills training
Which of the following explain(s) why players and coaches often neglect psychological skills training?
lack of knowledge; lack of time; viewing psychological skills as unchangeable
The PST knowledge base has come from what sources?
elite athlete research and athlete-coach experiences
A baseball player's slump can be caused by what kind(s) of problems?
psychological; biomechanical; physiological
Which of the following is (are) characteristic of EFFECTIVE consultants that athletes note in interviews with sport psychologists?
they conduct several follow-up sessions with athletes; they are accessible and establish rapport with the athletes; they are flexible in meeting individual athlete needs
PST takes what type of approach to mental training?
According to Vealey's analysis, which of the following reflect(s) foundation methods in PST training?
physical practice and education
What was the main problem that the basketball player faced in the case study?
he had not developed the psychological skill of relaxation
Using the psychological skill of relaxation learned in baseball to help deal with anxiety before taking exams would be the goal of which stage of Kirschenbaum's self-regulation model?
The ultimate goal (from a psychological perspective) of psychological skills training is
In conducting research on the mental preparation of Canadian Olympic athletes, Orlick and Partington found that athletes who performed up to their potential
developed competitive plans
According to Vealey, which of the following is (are) a psychological skills method?
goal setting
Results of a study focusing on successful versus unsuccessful athletes showed that more successful athletes are characterized by
higher self-confidence; more task-oriented thoughts
Performance profiling as a means to assess athletes' mental skills works by asking athletes to
identify, assess, and compare their own mental skills against other elite athletes in their sport
Which of the following demonstrate(s) psychological skills training?
a fitness instructor suggests using positive self-statements to enhance self-esteem with an overweight client and a physical education teacher uses relaxation training to help students calm down before going on to their next class
What is the best way to get information concerning an athlete's psychological strengths and weaknesses?
oral interview and psychological inventories
Which of the following is not one of the stages in Kirschenbaum's model of self-regulation?
The studies investigating the effectiveness of PST in enhancing performance have generally found
that PST enhances the performance of adult athletes; that PST enhances the performance of collegiate athletes; that PST enhances performance in individual and team sports
Which of the following is NOT a common problem in implementing PST programs?
sport psychologist's knowledge of psychological skill exercises
After a PST program has been put in place, how long do athletes need to continue practicing their mental skills?
as long as they continue to participate in their sport
Sport psychology topics that form the basis for PST programs include which of the following?
confidence building; imagery; attentional skills
The importance of the mental side of sports
does not differ based on skill level
Which of the following is (are) NOT a stage in autogenic training?
cooling of the extremities
Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding research findings on coping in sport?
athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies; athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had higher performance
Progressive relaxation was developed by
Edmund Jacobson
The two sensations that are emphasized in autogenic training are
warmth and heaviness
A good way to increase awareness of psychological states in sport is to
monitor and record your psychological states immediately after practice and competition
A good starting point for increasing awareness of arousal states is to
visualize your best and worst performances
Before starting progressive relaxation you should
dim the lights and lie down in a comfortable position
The relaxation response was developed by
Herbert Benson
The suggested ratio for the time of inhalation to exhalation when using breath control as a relaxation device is
Autogenic training was developed by
Schultz and Luthe
An athlete who is under activated commonly experiences which of the following?
heavy feeling in the legs and mind wandering
Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is (are) true?
the more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the more likely they will benefit from hypnosis; negative suggestions almost always result in a decrease in performance; the deeper the trance, the more likely the hypnosis will be effective
The basic premise of stress inoculation training is to
expose the individual to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person's immunity to stress
Which of the following is NOT a phase in the hypnosis process?
autogenic phase
Which of the following can increase activation?
positive mood words and listening to energizing music
Which of the following is NOT a coping strategy typically employed by elite athletes?
The matching hypothesis refers to
matching the type of anxiety management technique to the specific anxiety problem of each individual athlete
Ost has developed an applied relaxation technique using progressive relaxation that can be done at competitions in
20-30 seconds
Which of the following can be useful as an on-site strategy to help reduce tension?
smile when the pressure is coming on; slow down; stay focused in the present
Which of the following is (are) NOT a basic tenet of progressive relaxation?
tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously
Which of the following is (are) NOT among the interventions for cognitive-affective stress management training
systematic desensitization
Effective breathing occurs from the
According to research by Gould and colleagues with elite athletes, athletes
prepared for unexpected events and placed a great deal of importance on mental training
The elements necessary to achieve the relaxation response include
a quiet environment; a passive attitude; a mental device; a comfortable position
Cognitive restructuring attempts to
identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements
Which of the following is NOT a phase in Smith's cognitive-affective stress management training?
post treatment assessment
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
imagery can improve performance if it is done systematically
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
mental practice can be employed as a substitute for physical practice if an athlete is injured and mental practice should be used as a supplement to physical practice, rather than as a replacement for physical practice
Imagery involves which of the following senses?
visual; auditory; kinesthetic
Basic imagery training involves
controllability and vividness
An optimal time to use imagery is
before and after practice; before and after competition; during breaks in the action
An athlete tries to image shooting a free throw under pressure, but the ball keeps hitting the rim and bouncing off. This is an example of a lack of
What is the name of the program that uses videotapes to improve imagery skills and thus enhance performance?
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
individuals should image mostly successful events but also learn to cope with an occasional failure
According to researcher I. Pavio, imagery has two primary functions, namely
cognitive and motivational
Internal imagery (as compared to external imagery) makes it easier for an athlete to experience which of the following senses?
Which of the following is (are) true?
the majority of imagery use occurs during practice and competition
Which of the following statements is (are) true?
external imagery refers to viewing yourself from the perspective of an external observer
Athletes who incorporate all the senses into their image are going to score high on what aspect of imagery?
Suinn's research showing that electrical activity was present in skiers' legs as they imagined skiing down the slope provided support for
psychoneuromuscular theory
What theory was supported by the research literature showing that subjects using imagery performed consistently better on tasks that were cognitive than on those that were motoric in nature?
symbolic learning theory
Triple code theory refers to what three parts of the image?
image itself, image meaning, somatic response to the image
According to Pavio's work on the different functions of imagery, a person's imaging staying relaxed under pressure would be an example of
motivational-specific imagery
Which of the following is (are) basic to a successful imagery training program?
realistic expectations and relaxed concentration
According to the experimental evidence, which of the following is (are) true?
imagery is effective in improving the learning and performance of motor skills and tasks involving mostly cognitive components demonstrate the greatest positive benefits.
Imagery functions as a coding system to help individuals acquire movement patterns. This describes
symbolic learning theory
Which of the following athletes uses imagery as part of preparation for competition?
Dwight Stones; Jean-Claude Killy; Jack Nicklaus
Which of the following is (are) FALSE?
coaches provide more beneficial feedback to low-expectancy athletes
Self-efficacy theory was originated by
Albert Bandura
An injured athlete is feeling depressed and anxious about his rehabilitation and thus has a low sense of self-efficacy. This is an example of using which source of self-efficacy?
emotional states
The probable reason that approximately a dozen runners broke the 4-minute barrier within one year after Roger Bannister originally did was their
expectations that it could be done
Recent research has identified nine sources of sport self-confidence. These fit into which of the following categories?
climate (environment) and self-regulation
According to the latest thinking, self-efficacy is now called
self-regulatory efficacy
The strongest and most dependable information on which to base self-efficacy judgments comes from
performance accomplishments
Which of the following is (are) true?
low-expectancy athletes exhibit lower performances due to less effective reinforcement and playing time and low-expectancy athletes attribute their failures to lack of ability
Confidence can be improved by
thinking confidently; acting confidently; imagery
Which of the following is (are) true?
coaches spend more time with high-expectancy athletes and coaches show more positive affect to high-expectancy athletes
Which of the following is (are) true?
low-expectancy athletes exhibit lower performances due to less effective reinforcement and playing time and low-expectancy athletes attribute their failures to lack of ability
The relationship between confidence and performance is
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of confidence?
If you want to avoid breaking down an individual's self-confidence,
don't criticize people for inconsequential errors and don't use sarcasm to motivate people
Coaches often form expectations of athletes based on
erformance information and person cues
According to Rosenthal and Jacobson's study on teacher expectancies and student performances,
children identified as "late bloomers" exhibited the greatest gains in IQ
Confidence is seen as multidimensional, consisting of confidence in
one's ability to execute physical skills; one's level of fitness; one's psychological skills
Researchers investigating the concept of psychological momentum in sport found that teams of athletes having momentum
were just as likely to perform poorly as to continue to perform well
Confidence is usually defined by sport psychologists as the
belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior
Which of the following points about self-efficacy theory is (are) true?
self-efficacy affects effort expenditure and persistence; self-efficacy is task specific
Research by Gould and his colleagues on setting up detailed plans as a way to increase confidence showed that
elite athletes had the most detailed plans
According to the text, goals should be
difficult enough to be a challenge, yet realistic enough to achieve
Burton (1989a), in a study of basketball skills, found that
goal setting better enhanced performance on low- as compared with high-complexity tasks
Studies of goal setting in business have concluded that
goal setting works and works very well
Dishman (1988) found that a spouse's support is
a critical factor affecting exercise adherence
When formulating a goal-setting program with a novice goal setter, it is best to
help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
On the basis of 30 years of research, Locke and Latham propose seven steps to maximize goal-setting effectiveness. These steps include
developing goal commitment; evaluating barriers to goal attainment; adjusting goals for practice and competition
Burton contends that athletes who set outcome goals will experience more anxiety and lower self-confidence in competition; this is
because their goals are not within their complete control and one of the indirect thought-process explanations for goal setting's effectiveness
The phrase "out of sight, out of mind" is a reminder to
write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen
Which of the following (according to research by Filby et al.) would produce the best performance?
a combination of goals
A formal assessment of an athlete's current ability or needs is
part of the instructor-leader preparation stage of implementing a goal-setting program and great for identifying what areas you think the athlete needs to improve
Having a goal to "win the race" is an example of a (n) _____ goal, whereas having a goal to "improve my best time" is an example of a (n) ______ goal.
outcome; performance
In developing a goal-setting program, it is important for individuals to set
process, performance, and outcome goals
Which of the following is (are) true regarding goal-setting practices of high school and collegiate coaches?
the only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high
Which of the following is (are) useful for setting team goals?
establishing short-term goals first; monitoring progress toward team goals; fostering team confidence concerning team goals
Which of the following is NOT a common obstacle in setting goals?
goals are too unstructured
It is recommended that appropriate goals should be
a combination of short- and long-term
"Chipping a bucket of golf balls onto a practice green three days a week" is an example of
a strategy for attaining the goal of "lower my handicap by three strokes"
Directing a performer's attention to important elements of a skill is
one way in which goal setting can influence performance
The mechanistic explanation for goal-setting's effectiveness includes
directing the performer's attention to important elements of a skill; mobilizing effort and increasing persistence by providing incentives; the development and employment of new learning strategies
Focusing on performance (as opposed to outcome goals) during competition has been shown to be associated with _____ anxiety and _____ performance.
less; superior
Simply telling an athlete to "do your best" is
not specific enough
In preparing for a major competition, many elite athletes structure training to put themselves under the same sort of pressure encountered during the actual competition. This is an example of
Simulation training
Tennis and baseball players are able to successfully hit balls traveling toward them at high speeds because
they have learned to predict the flight of the ball by using advanced attentional cues
Which of the following is NOT a subscale of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style?
To improve concentration, an athlete should
establish routines and practice eye control
Which of the following best represents William James's classic description of attention?
it implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others
Athletes with a preference for a broad-external focus
seem to notice everything that is happening around them
In a study on figure skaters, self-monitoring helped skaters to become
More task-focused
Which of the following would NOT be classified as an internal distracter?
Visual and auditory distractors
Developing competitive plans should focus on what type of goals?
Process goals
Individuals with a good ability to concentrate, scan, and store relevant cues are likely to score _____ on a concentration block grid in 1 minute.
In the upper 20s to low 30s
The narrowing and internal focus associated with choking can result in
impaired timing; loss of coordination; Poor judgment and decision making
Entirely focusing on body mechanics and movements
is important when learning a skill; may be inappropriate once a skill becomes automatic; may be detrimental to performance because the mind gets in the way of the body
According to the new multiple resource pools theories, attentional capacity is
Distributed throughout the nervous system
An example of Nideffer's broad-external type of attentional focus is
a basketball point guard's rapidly assessing the positioning of the defense while on a fast break
Which of the following is NOT a key element included in most definitions of concentration?
the ability to narrow attentional focus during intense pressure
Psychophysiological research on attentional processes in archers and pistol shooters has revealed that accuracy is increased when performers' brain waves are in which frequency?
According to the text, "choking" should be defined as
A process that leads to impaired performance
Research investigating differences between experts and novices concludes that these differences are in large part due to experts' ability to
attend more to advance information to make faster decisions and predict the flight pattern of a ball
High scores on the BIT subscale of Nideffer's TAIS indicate
an ability to effectively integrate several ideas at one time
Using a trigger word to stop negative self-statements is called
Thought stopping
From an attentional perspective, over learning of skills
makes the skills more automatic, thus requiring less attention
If a golfer shifts attention just prior to a tee shot, from the length of the fairway and the direction of the wind to focusing only on the ball, her attention has shifted from _____ to _____.
Broad external; narrow external
"Ironic processes" in sport refers to
The idea that trying not to perform an action can trigger its occurrence accidentally
Telling yourself to "focus!" probably is best defined as
a cue word for bringing you back into a present focus
Just before shooting, elite pistol shooters display