Trail and error learning
Learning based on the repetition of response tendencies that lead to success
Law of effect
Acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to recur
Law of exercise
The more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation.
watson behaviorism
Emphasized observable behaviors of individuals rather than mental or emotional state -American psychologist who used the experiment Little Albert to develop his ideas
Edward thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in instrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
conditioned reflexes
Reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response.
Psychic reflexes
- Result only in a given individual as a result of a particular experience.

Is a learned reflex due to an experience)

Edward Tolman:
American psychologist who used the terms cognitive map and latent learning to describe experimental findings that strongly suggested the cognitive factors play a role in animal learning
Intervening variables
Unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior.
Tolman's learning theory
Rejected Thorndikes law of effect, saying that reward or reinforcement has little influence on learning. In its place, Toleman proposed a cognitive explanation. Repeated performance of a task strengthens the learned relationship.
Operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
Schedules of reinforcement
the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will continue; Four types of schedules: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval; interval means over a time and ratio means an act; partial reinforcement is on a variable schedule whereas continuous reinforcement is on a fixed schedule; variable schedules are more effective in learning
Skinner's behavior modification
desirable behavior is reinforced/maintained; undesirable behavior is ignored/weakened
Social Cognitive Theory
contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the roles played by both cognitive factors and environmental or situational factors in determining behavior
One's sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life's problem
Vicarious reinforcement
Banduras notion that learning can occur by observing the behavior of other people, and the consequences of their behavior, rather than by always experiencing reinforcement personally
Bandura's behavior modification
The use of positive reinforcement to control or modify the behavior of individuals or groups