a lasting change in behavior resulting from experience
classical conditioning
to attach a old response to a new stimulus
involuntary responses
classical conditioning
unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
involving no training
neutral stimulus
something that has nothing to do with response but intends to be the subsitution stimulus
conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
trained to do
spontaneous recovery
relearning of conditioned responce (being trained again)
Ivan Pavlov
dog experiment with food and salivation and bell
dying out of conditioned response
response to similar but distinct stimuli
ability to respond to similar but distinct stimuli
operant conditioning
learning from consequences of actions
voluntary actions
operant conditioning
increases behavior
positive reinforcement
increases behavior in order to get something pleasant added to the situation (child's tantrum)
negative reinforcement
increases behavior in order to remove or prevent something unpleasant (parent giving in)
decreases behavior
aversive control
influencing behavior with unpleasant stimuli
primary reinforcer
stimulus that satisfies biological need ( food sleep)
secondary reinforcer
stimulus that becomes rewarding through link with primary reinforcer (money)
fixed ratio schedule
constant # of responces, typist- set $ per page
variable ratio schedule
unpredictable responces per action, slot machine
fixed interval schedule
specific amount of time before response, paycheck
social learning
2 types
social learning
type 1 of social learning: cognitive learning
mental processes
2 types of cognitive learning: Latent learning and Learned helplessness
Latent Learning- cognitive maps "mental picture"Learned Helplessness- Martin Seligman w/ dogs and shock
type 2 of social learning: modeling
-behavior of others likley to influence us, copying-Albert Bandura-bobo doll- children be aggressive after seeing aggression
Behavior Modification
applying classical, operant, and social learning to change ppl's actions and feelings
taste aversions
-classical conditioning-have bad reaction to something you ate, can't look at it again, blame it on food
-teaching-rewards for anything similar to desired task, then reinforcing more similar responces to eventually get desire task
response chain
-sequence of responses producing signal for next response
aversive control
process of influencing behavior by unpleasant stimuli
how does learned helplessness lead to depression?
multiple attempts fail and results in hopelessness
3 types of modeling
1- simplest case- behavior of others increases our chances of doing it2- observational learning- imitation3- disinhibition- easier to engage when watching somone else
easier to engage after seeing someone else do it