smallest unit of sound
phonological awareness
ability to understand the relationship between letters and sounds; detecting rhyme and alliteration and being aware that sounds can be manipulated within syllables in words
smallest unit of meaning (word, prefix, suffix)
meaning/definition of word
word order
social use of language
Communication Disorders: Domains
1. problems with language (syntax, semantics)2. problems with speech (phoneme production)3. problems with social communication (pragmatic)
Communication Disorders: prevalence
- 1/10 children
Language Disorder
- deficits in comprehension or production of written or spoken language- limited vocabulary- problem saying words/phrases- problem communicating thoughts and feelings- receptive language (understanding) vs. productive language (producing)
Specific Language Impairment
25-50% of kids with late language emergence
Language Disorder: prevalence
- 7% will have a language disorder- diagnosed in preschool/kindergarten- males more common than females- males and 2nd born children speak later
Communication and Language Disorders: causes
- genetics (7% of kids without family history, 40% with family history)- cognitive processing issues (slow or abnormal brain maturation)- home life
Communication and Language Disorders: treatment
- discrete trials (repetition of working on the child's speech sound that they are struggling with)- milieu training (practices treatment within the environment that they are struggling with)- augmentative/ alternative communication
Fluency Disorder (stuttering)
- speech flow issues related to rate, rhythm, or sequence- repetition, elongation, no words come out
Fluency Disorder: prevalence
- 11% of 4 year olds- 1% of adults
Fluency Disorder: course
- onset between ages 2 and 6- children usually outgrow it
Fluency Disorder: causes
Fluency Disorder: treatment
can be parent focused or child focused
Social Communication Disorder (Social Pragmatic Disorder)
new to DSM-5; problems initiating conversations, changing speech patterns, joining in conversations, recognizing cues, restructuring, implied context, poor repair, irrelevant comments
Social Communication Disorder: course
early development
Social Communication Disorder: treatment
- practice- engaging
Learning Disabilities
*vary depending on where issues are and severity)1. specific learning disability with impairment in reading (80%)2.

specific learning disability with impairment in written expression (8-15%)3. specific learning disability with impairment in mathematics (5-8%)

Learning Disabilities: identification
- up to each state and federal laws- three approaches (IQ achievement discrepancy, responsiveness to intervention, comprehensive assessment)
Learning Disabilities: prevalence
- 5-15% (depends on research methods and identifying characteristics)- more boys get treatment- girls have higher rates of impairment in math- African American, Hispanic, and American Indians are more likely to be diagnosed (control for SES and differences disappear)
Learning Disabilities: course
- 37% drop out rate
Learning Disabilities: comorbidity
- not isolated- often have more than one specifier- high rates of anxiety, mood disorders, behavior problems
ability to learn and store phonemes as well as the rules for combining the sounds into meaningful units or words
Speech sound disorder
trouble controlling their rate of speech, or lag behind playmates in learning to articulate certain sounds, typically children learn phonemes and use intelligible speech by age 3 with the exception of difficult sounds
Language disorders: inclusion
abilities of children with special needs with improve from associating with normally developing peers and that by doing so these children will be spared the effects of labeling and special placements
Nonverbal Learning Disability (NLD)
- deficits related to the right-hemisphere brain functioning (considerably worse at math than reading)1. social/emotional skills, spatial orientation, problem solving, and recognition of nonverbal cues such as body language2. neuropsychological problems such as poor coordination, poor judgement, difficulties in adapting to novel and complex situations3. may be a form of SLD with impairment in mathematics