in behavior modification, events that typically precede the target response
resistance to extinction
the phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated
avoidance learning
learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring
escape learning
a type of learning in which an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimuli
higher order conditioning
a type of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus function as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
instinctive drift
the tendency for an animals instinctive responses to interfere with conditioning processes
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
classical conditioning (Pavlovian)
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli.

A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
operant chamber (Skinner Box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer (secondary)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
overjustification effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and be effective
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
negative reinforcement
the strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimuli
positive reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus