A man-made channel constructed to convey water from one location to another
Bear Flag Revolt
A brief attempt at the beginning of the Mexican-American War to establish an independent California republic
The code of knights in feudal Japan, the equivalent of chivalry in Europe
California's Mission System
A "sacred expedition" in which twenty-one Spanish Catholic missions were established, spaced to be a single days travel apart on El Camino Real (the Royal Road)
Residents of the rancho system in California just before the Mexican-American War, mainly comprised of Mexican citizen who idetified more as Californios than Mesicans
An economic system regulated by the state that encourages the accumulation of weath and property by individuals
A division of society based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privledge, profession, or occupation, not allowed to move from one caste to another
Central Valley Project (CVP)
A federal water project undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1935 as a long-term plan to effectively use water in California's central valley
Check and Balances
Written into the Constitution, this concept is one of the cornerstones of our republic, encompassing three branches of governement and a system for them to act as watchdogs for the others
To sail completely around the earth
Code of Hammurabi
The first known written legal code, developed in ancient Babylong, predated the justinian Code by about 2,000 years
An economic system in which the state controls the means of production and distributes the profits
Spanish exploreres that sought the riches of Central and South America, establishing colonies along the way
Japanese feudal lord
Democratic-Republican Party
One of the first two political parties in the United States, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; opposed the Federalist party and was strongly in favor of individual rights
A social science deaing with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Emancipation Proclamation
A proclamation made by President Lincoln in1863 freeing all slaves in regions still fighting against the Union
Executive Branch
A branch of the system of checks and balances that sees that the country's laws are executed
A system of government consisting of self-regluating regions (states) united by a central (federal) government
Federalist Papers
A series of articles written in 1787 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to gain popular support for the then-proposed Constitution
A social economic, and political system in which power is decentralized, and a varying number of lords hold land on which they allow others to live and work in return for loyalty and service
Land held by lorders under the feudal system
Nickname for the influx of people that arrived in California, staring in 1849, in search of gold
A minor but influential political party int he pre-Civil War period that opposed the extention of slavery into the western territories
Gentleman's Agreement
A 1907 treaty with Japan that allowed wives to joing their husbands in the U.S. on the condition that the Japanese government deny exit visas to any men wishing to emigrate to the United States
Great Awakening
A religious revival in the colonies during the first part of the 18th century
Great Compromise
A decision made by the Constitutional Congress splitting Congress into two houses, one based on population (House of Rep) and the other based on equal representations (Senate)
Hunter/Gatherer Societies
An early society in which men hunted for meat and women gathered more readily available food
A process that gives individual citizens, or groups of citizens, the power to place a proposed law on the ballot
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
British reaction to the Boston Tea Party, including more rigid restrictions on colonial town meetins and other harsh penalties
Judicial Branch
A branch of the system of checks and balances that interprets Congressional laws
Justinian Code
Consdiered to be the basis for the justice system in use throughout much of the Western world, including the United States
Land Commission
Established to settle the Californio's land claims during the first few years of California's statehood
Law of Supply and Demand
The basic economic principle stating that is suppply is greater than demand, the value of the product is lower, if demand is greater than supply, the value is higher
Legislative Branch
The branch of the system of checks and balances that makes Congressional laws
Louisiana Purchase
The 1803 purchase made by President Thomas Jefferson that essentially doubled the United States territory
Manifest Destiny
An 1845 phrase encapsulating the American version of the Western Expansion
The practice of state regulation and control of an economy
Missouri Compromise
The 1820 legislation that tried to resolve the conflicts reaised by the addition of new territories as either slave or non-slave owning areas
The worship of only one god
A concept espoused by southerners following the Missouri Compromise that would have given southern states the right to refuse to obey laws that they did not agree with
A term used to describe the Central Pacifics Railroad's monopoly for having an arm in practically every sector of California's commerce
A religious group who had broken away from the Church of England, first relocating to Holland to escape persecution, then setting sail in the fall of 1620 to become the first settlers to arrive in Massachusetts
Popular Sovereignty
the idea that political authority belongs to the people
Forts build by the Spanish to offer protection to california's missionaries and settlers during periods of violent revolt by native workers
Towns based around California's missions and presidios, built around a church and a town square
Rancho System
A land allotment system defined by a few large landowners and many landless workers
A mechanism fo rending an elected official's tenure before its scheduled completion
President Lincoln's first priority after the Civil War to reconcile the warring sides and rebuild areas affected by the war
A statute or amendment that has passed the state legislature, which is then placed the proposed law on the ballot for approval by the electorate, allows the California electorate to rescind legislatin that has already become law
A religious beleif in which, after physical death, a rebirth in another body occurs, a central tenet of Hinduism, among other religions
Relocation Camp
Interment camps that held people of Japanese descent durin World War II
A French word meaning, rebirth, the name given to the flowering of European culture at the end of the medieval period
That self-given right of seven states to the lower South to leave the Union is they so desired
Seperate but Equal
A philosophy, along with election rules, that was designed to deny blacks the right to vote after reconstruction ended
Peasants who work on land in a feudal system
In Feudal Japan, the equivalent of a medieval Eupopean king
Silicon Valley
A nickname for the Southern part of San Francisco Bay Area in the northern California, originally referring to the concentration of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
An economic system in which workers control the means of production and share in the profits for their labors
Ten Percent Plan
A plan created by President Lincoln before his assassination, and carried out by the successor, Andrew Johnson, stating that a state could be readmitted to the Union if ten percent of the former Confederates in the state who had voted in the 1860 election vowed loyalty to the union
Three-Fifths Compromise
An initial rule in the constituion stating that in state population counts, each slave would count for three-fifths of one person
The equivilent of a knight in the feudal system
The start and end of the Age of Discovery
Spain, France, England, Portugal, Netherlands
Countries that competed for land
New England Colonies
Shipbuilding and Commerce
Middle Colonies
Farming and Commerce
Southern Colonies
Tobacco, cotton and slavery
House of Burgesses
An early colonial attempt at representative self-government (1619), first legislative assembly of the colonies
The Mayflower Compact
Basis of government by the consent of the governed
Major Popluation Groups
Europeans and Africans
Benjamin Franklin
Philosopher, inventor, politician who had great influence over many years
Northwest Ordinance
Defined the Northwest Territory and the way the US would be set up
John Adams
Leader of the movement towards Independence, very outspoken
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States of America
Thomas Jefferson
Responsible for writing most of the Declaration of Independence
A division of government powers between a strong central government and the state governments
Like the English Parliment, the new state legislatures were...
Parliment Repealed the Act
Reaction of the English Government to the colonial protest against the stamp act
Intolerable Acts
Reaction of the British Government to the Boston Tea Party
Boycotting Britsh Goods
The colonists strongest weapon against the unpopular British Tax measures
The Jamestown Colony
Settled by gentleman adventurers, landless and poor men who wanted to improve finances, in the original settlement, no women, first slaves were brought here from Africa, tobacco was first cultivated as a moneymaking crop by this settlement, first representative of government
18th Century
Three fourths of white population was middle class, more social equality than in England, hired farmhands and indentured servants were in lower class, lawyers and merchants were upper class.
Townshend Acts
The law the Bostonians protested when soldiers fired on the mobs in the Boston Massacre
The Plymouth Colony
Success of the colony sparked a huge migration to the New World from England, signed an agreement among themselves they would have a government based on the church's teachings, came to America seeking freedom from religous persecution
Nathanial Bacon lead this colony in a rebellion against the colonial government protesting the Government's Indian policy
Great Britain
Sought to control colonial trade because it did not want competition with it's own manufacturers
The Great Awakening
The colonist gained a sense of independence because they challenged church beliefs, they felt unified because of a common religion, ties between church and state weakened, a greater sense of equality because preachers stressed equality of all
Daniel Shays
Led an armed uprising of 1,200 farmers
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense
Order of Acts
Stamp, Declatory, Townshend, Boston Massacre
The French Indian War
Turning point in England's domination over North America (1756- 1763)
1763-1776 - Tension Built between America and England
English Mercantile policy discouraged economic independence, Colonial concepts of political and economic freedom, Colonies used boycotts and other measures, Declaration of Independence stated the purposes for the Colonial break with England
Stamp Act
(1765) - The first direct tax to be levied on the American colonies, it required that all newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, commercial bills, advertisements, and other papers issued in the colonies bear a stamp. The act was denounced in the colonies by those it most affected: businessmen, merchants, journalists, lawyers, and other powerful persons
Townshend Act
(1767) - taxed many products such as paper, glass and tea
Boston Massacre
(1770) - British troops fire on crowd of Bostonians
Tea Act
(1773) - The Tea Act, passed by Parliament in May of 1773, would launch the final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes. It was designed to prop up the East India Company which was floundering financially and burdened with eighteen million pounds of unsold tea. This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price. The Townshend Duties were still in place, however, and the radical leaders in America found reason to believe that this act was a maneuver to buy popular support for the taxes already in force. The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would also have undercut the business of local merchants
Boston Tea Party
(1773) - A group of colonists, led by Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, and others, disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded English ships on the night of Dec. 16, 1773, and threw the tea into the harbor
Intolerable Acts
(1774) - Britain attempts to gain control of the colonies in response to Boston Tea Party by closing the Boston Harbor, enforcing quartering, closing town meetings and trying British citizens in Britain
British Army marches on Concord and Lexington
(1775) - Paul Revere, "British are coming...", "Shots heard around the world". The Revolution had begun
American Revolution Chronological Order
Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, British March on Concord and Lexington
1776 - 1781
The American Revolution was fought to obtain independence
Hindered Military Effectiveness
Colonial Armies were underequipped, widespread opposition to fixed military terms
George Washington
His leadership turned the tide of the battle
The French Alliance
1778 - Brought needed men, equipment and money to American cause
Defeat of Cornwallis of Yorktown
1781 - This defeat brought victory to the colonies
Articles of Confederation Dates
1781 - 1789
Article of Confederation Weaknesses
National Government did not have the power to regulate foreign trade, had no court system, no independent taxing power, could not enforce national laws
Constitutional Convention Major Issue
Conflicting interest of small vs large states
Feared a strong central government
Articles of Confederation
Were not ratified for four years because Maryland refused to ratify them
Northwest Ordinance
Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
Hamilton, Jay and Madison
Wrote the Federalist Papers
The need for a strong central government led to the framing of the constituion in what year
Constituion Did (four things)
Federal system which divided fedeal and state power, seperation of powers, and checks and balances to limit power of central government, legislative, executive and judicial branch created to divide power, bill of rights added to protect the people
Concurrent Powers
Refers to powers shared by the national government and state governments
Reserved Powers
Powers set aside for state governments
Delegated Powers
Powers assigned the National Government
Amendment to the Constituion Requires
Two thirds vote of Congress and then three fourths vote of the states to ratify
Elastic Clause of the Constitution
Allows congress to make laws on issues not mentioned in the Constitution
26th Amendment
Gave 18 year olds the right to vote
17th Amendment
Senators to be directly elected by the people
15th Amendment
Guaranteed black americans the righ to vote
2nd & 3rd Amendment
Gave people the right to stand up to Government
States that the people have the power to establish and change rules
War of 1812
War fought between US and Great Britain over neutrality and impressment of US Sailors - US victory, resulted in National pride, self sufficiency, and foreign credibility
The New Nationalism - 1816 - 1823
Scope and authority of Supreme Court, The Era of good feelings (political success of the Republican party), The Monroe Doctrine, development of a new American culture
1787 - 1823
The New Nation - Alexander Hamilton was part of this era
Hamilton's Financial Plan
National Govt paid back state, national, and foreign debts to demonstrate credibility; National Govt encouraged American Business expansion by passing excise tax and a tariff; National Government raised revenue by a tax on domestic whiskey
Hamilton's Financial Plan Parties
Federalist Party - Strong central government ruled by manufacturing interests (Hamilton). Favored rich and wealthy Antifederalist Party - limited federal power based on farming interests (Jefferson) believed in worth of the individual
Strength of foreign policy during the early national period
Louisiana Purchase
Greatest Real Estate Purchase in U.S. history (1803)
Jacksonian Democracy
The rise of the common man. War against the bank and tariff were key issues for the new democratic party; Jackson initiated the spoils system (political enemies are replaced by political friends); Jackson pursued nationalistic policies
Whig Party
They opposed the democrats belief in states' rights and instead favored a strong national government.
Contributed to the growth of slavery
The Missouri Compromise
1820 - Limited the spread of slavery
The Annexation of Texas
1837 - Added potential slave territory to the United States
The Mexican War
1848 - Was criticized as a proslavery, expansionist war
The Rise of the New West created...
Transportation, education, politics, mining and agriculture
California Geographic Features
Coasts (trading, transportation, Presidio military protection); Mountains: Smaller Valleys: Vast Lands (huge cattle ranches large game in over 1/2 state); Many streams and Rivers (fish were abundent, fertile for crops)
Manifest Destiny
This ideology encouraged U.S. expansion to the Pacific
Texas annexed to the United States
Oregon annexed to the United States
Mexican American War
1848 - California, parts of the southwest were gained
Sugar Plantations in the West Indies
16th Century - Benefited most from slavery
1861 - 1865
Years of the Civil War
Reason for Civil War
Individual state rights, slavery, cotton, and the election of Abraham Lincoln as president
Civil War - North Power
Manpower, firepower, economic resources
Civil war - South Power
Leadership, territory
Union Strategy
Isolating the South
Battle of Gettysburg
1863 - This battle ended the souths chance of foreign recognition
Robert E. Lee
General who commanded the Confederate Army during the Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant
General who led the Union Army to victory in the Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run
President Lincoln realized the war would be long and hard
The Draft
The New York City Riots were protest against
Capitol of the South
Atlanta Victory
Help turned the tide so that Lincoln was able to win a second term in 1864
Victory gave Lincoln the right moment to make the Emancipation Procolomation
Appomatix Courthouse
Lee surrendered to Grant
Vicksburg Battle
Meant that the union controlled the entire Mississippi River
Capitol of the North
George McClellan
Little Napoleon, suffered several defeats, replaced, put back in command, and replaced again
Robert E. Lee surrendered because...
...his troops were trapped by Grant's Army
Antietam Battle
Battle that followed the second Bull Run
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the war
France, Britain
The south asked these two countries for help during the Civil War
Not a victory for Grant
Farthest north the confederates were able to get, called the "High water mark of confederacy"
Reconstruction of the South
Presidential plan emphasized tolerance for the defeated South (congress won with radical plan)
Reconstruction of the South
Congressional (Radical) plan emphasized the use of military force in treating the South like a conquered territory (congress won over presidential plan)
Radical Reconstruction Years
1868 - 1876
Bills Passed During Reconstruction
Civil Rights Bills Passed 14th & 15th Amendment
President Johnson
Impeached for opposing Radical Reconstruction
Setback at the end of Reconstruction
Social justice for blacks, National committment to equal opportunity
Framers who were provided some land, housing and supplies by white landowners in return for giving landowners a portion of their crops
End of Reconstruction
A result of the presidential election of 1876
Native white southerners who had opposed secession and who had cooperated with the Republicans during reconstruction
Military Reconstruction Acts
Dissolved the government of all the Confederate States except Tennessee and divided the remaining Southern States into five districts
Aids to settlement of the West
Homestead Act (1862); Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
Western Industrial Base
Mining, cattle, and grain. Farmers and ranchers settled the Great Plains
Aided in Industrial Growth of America
Communcation and Transportation
Fostered Expansion of Industry
New methods of production (assembly line, mass production); inventions; Expanding markets at home and abroad; Development of steel, mining, electrical, petrolium, textile and food processing industries
Robber Baron
Stopped merchant ships and demanded tolls without authorization (12th & 13th centuries); businessman amasssing huge fortunes through unfair business practice (19th century)
Laws Dealing with Industrialization
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890), Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914). The National Labor Relations Act (1935) - collective bargaining rights for employees.
Spanish American War
1898 - Resulted in the ceding of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Phillipines to the United States
WWI Began
End of WWI
Wilsons Fourteen Points, Failure of congress to ratify
Great Depression Began
Casues of Depression
Growth of monopolies, unequal distribution of income, and overspeculation in the stock market
1932 - 1938
Franklin Roosevelt initiated The New Deal
The New deal Included
1) Government programs to provide jobs for the unemployed 2) Broadened the scope of the federal government's activities. 3) Permanently expanded the role of the presidency
New Frontier Pledge
John F. Kennedy's Pledge was to resolve domestic and cold war problems, expand the Space Program and Civil Rights legislation
Lyndon Johnson's Great Society
1964 - It attempted to continue New Deal type programs. Aims were ending poverty, reducing pollution, regenerating urban life, and pursuing Civil Rights legislation
Arab-Isreali War (1974)
Created an oil embargo
O'Connor, Scalia, Kennedy
Reagan's appointments to the Supreme Court
Oil Diplomacy
Redefined American Global Interests
Russia, China
President Nixon established better realations with these countries
1974 - Destroyed the credibility of the American Government
1979 - 1981
Iranian Hostage Situation Years
Soviets invade Afghanistan
Massive federal budget cuts, welfare reduced, personal and corporate taxes reduced, tax plan was characterized as "trickle-down" economics
The federal deficit escalated dramatically in the 1980s and threatened the economic stability of the U.S. What 2 things contributed to this?
Trade gap widened. Japan and Germany surpassed the U.S. in automobiles and airlines
Pardon of Nixon.....
...ruined Gerald Ford's political future
Jimmy Carter's Adminitration Problems
1) Energy Crisis 2) Israel and Egypt signed historic peace treaty, but key problems were left unsolved. 3) Need for alternate sources of energy 4) Detente with Russia suffered serious setbacks 5) Inflation
Ronald Reagan
Admistration supported massive build up of the defense program
Noriega was removed from Panama through the use of U.S. force in
The Tianament Square pro-democracy movement in China occurred in
Economic sanctions were lifted against South Africa when it shifted away from apartheid in
Factors of the Economic Slowdowof 1988
The GDP dropped. Unemployment increased. The "Big Three" automakers posted record losses. Bankruptcies increased. The Fed lowered interest rates in an attempt to stimulate the economy (1991-1992).
Souter and Thomas
Bush Supreme Court appointments
Eastern European Communism collapsed in
Soviet Union was desolved in
The Cold War officially ended at the Bush-Gorbachev Summits in
Gasoline, Tobacco, Medicare
Bush raised taxes on these items in 1990 to decrease the decifit
300 Billion Dollars
The Savings and Loan bankruptcies resulted in massive federal intervention to cover
Hussein invaded Kuwait
1991 - 1992
Persian Gulf War
Yurok Indians
Villages on lagoons or mouth streams and lower Klamath River. Accumulated wealth, sets of dance regalia and ceremonial gatherings. Distinctive clothing, abundant natural resources, permanent villages. Harvested fish, deer, elk, acorns. Used wood from forest to create homes and household items (stools, storage boxes)
Rabbits and other small game, bows and arrows or nets and snares. Accorns, mequite pods, pinon nuts, and other fruit of cacti. Planeted crops when water sufficient, pottery by coiling narrow ropes of clay.
Annual migration, in spring gathered budding plans and small game. Harvested dried pipening cactus fruites for winter storage. Moved to higher elevations in August, harvested acorns and pinon nuts before returning to winter villages.
Owens Valley Paiute
Small rainfall, vegetation scarce, bands were migratory, shifting from place to place in search of water and food. Men hunted, women gathered seeds, nuts and fruits. Distinctive form of acgricutlre based on communal labor. Created ditches and dams to irrigate various wild plants.
Social rank on basis of wealth. Retained privledges passing fortunes to next generations. Salmon and acorn diet. Rituals like White Deerskins and Jumping Dances. Dance done to ward off disease and famin. Recite long narratives and display wealthy objects.
Led by a headman or timiwal. Appointed by council and served for life. Primary counselor, arbritator. Diet of acorns, six differenct species of oaks and pinon nuts. Gathereed from eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada. Small seeds and berries were gathered. Fish were caught in the mountain streams and rivers. Also deer, bear, mountain lion, mounain sheep and antelope.
Largest villages in CA, some 2000 people. Home of poles driven into the ground and arched in the center, with thatch of interwoven graases and ferns. Brilliant rock paintings, found in caves and on rocks in Southern CA, abstract and highly stylized and imaginative.
Fished on canoe shaped rafts, relied heavily on salmon and acorns. Haproons and dragnets to fish. Groves of lvalley oaks, great amounts of acorns for thick suop. San Joaquin Valley, wetlands, birds, duck, geese, elk, antelope.
Best known as CA basketmakers, twined and coilded ware in many shapes. Otlined with brightly colored feathers, plumes, beads, and shells.
Tongva (Gabrielino)
Distinct social class, elite were wealthy individuals and headmen Marriage only in same class.
River valley villages, families owned their hunting and fishing ground, tobacco plots and oak trees. Real estate passed on through the males. Money was clamshell disks and dentalia.
High value or hard work. Trout and fish gathered with nests in rivers and lakes. Rabbits hunted in groups. Larger game by individuals, trned over kill to village for general use. Sixth days set for rest, Big annual celebration autumnal pakapi or "big time" enoto celebrate enough food for coming winter.
One of most popular in CA, from Pacific Coast to Sierra nevada. Earth covered homes, in Sierra Nevada houses were three or four layers of bark. Homes near coast were interlocking poles of willow or driftwood. Bunchess of grass or reeds tied in rows to frame.
Deer in Noorthern CA, plentfiu. venison and deerskin for clothing. Shamans played a key role, had healing ability from tamakomi, "medicine or power. Half of shamans were women.
Cluster of three to five small villages around a centraly village. Lands were held in common. Each tribe servered as part of a political organization. the Leader played a fairly minor role exept during time of war or talk of peace.
Northwestern Indian Culture
California to Alaska, dense woodlands of redwoods. Great rainfall, social status dertmined by objects, Rich men led, tribes include Yurok , Hupa and Shasta
Northeastern Indian Culture
Desolate areas, scare food, hunting small game and seeds and roots. Thinly settled, tribues include Achumawi and Atsugewi.
Central Indian culture
Central coast throughout Sacramento and San Joaquin Valley, mild climate and plants and animals abundant. Tribal dress and housing relfected climate. Best basket skills of all, tribes include Yokuts, Miwodk, Maidu, and Pomo.
The Great Basin
Most lands along the eastern border of the state. Food and water scacre, tribes had to move frequently in search of food like rats and rabbits. Tribes include, Tubatulabal, and the Owens Valley Paiute.
Colorado River Indian Culture
Supplemented their hunting with agrictulre. Grew corn, beans and pumpkins in fertile flood plains. Traded with many tribes, tribes include (Quechan (Yuma) Halchidhoma, Mohave.
Southern Indian Culture
Some of most popular tribes in CA, villags along the souther coast, sustained by sea life, as many as two thousand redisents each. Tribes are Kumeyaay (Diegueno), Cahuilla, Tongva, (Gabrielino) and Chumash
Miranda vs Arizona - 1966
Criminal supsects must be informed of their miranda rights
Marbury vs Madison - 1803
Created Judicial Review, ability to reivew a law for viloations
Gideon vs Wainwright - 1963
State courts are required by the 6th and 14th amendments, right to speedy process, counsel
Brown vs Board of Education - 1954
Suprmeme court outlawed racial segragation, overrulled seperate but equal.
Dred Scott vs Sanford - 1857
Ruled that african americans could never become citizens, in slavery or not.
Labor Board vs J&L Steel Corporations - 1937
Declared National Labor Relations (Wagner Act) was constitutional. Greatly increased congress power under Commerce Clause.
McCullough vs Maryland - 1819
Eastablished that the constitution grants to conress implied powers inherent in the nature of the Constitution as a blueprint for a practical functioning government, and the state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal Government
Plessy vs Ferguson - 1896
Approved racial segregation, seperate but equal
New York Times co. vs Sullivan - 1964
Enacted the "malice" standard allowed free reporting
Gibbons vs Ogden - 1824
The power to regulate interstate navigation was reserved to congress and trumps the power of the state
California Constitution
12 Year term for Supreme Court justices, greater details, greater degree of voter control, in both Houses, representation is based on districts that are determined by size of population, senators serve four year terms
Ignored by European Invaders
American Indians agriculture and medical wisdonm
Mosiac Law
Greatest contribution of ancient Hebrew civilation to modern western civilation
Southern whites who allied with the radicals
Northerners who went South to assist in Reconstruction
Most common religion of Arabian civilization
Ceremonial Centers in Mesoamerican Cultures
To win favors of the gods, who according to their beleifs, governed the life of mankind and the cycles of nature
Philip IV
Christ's own words render taxes to Caesar and delcared to continue resistance to taxes would equal betraying the State and aiding enemies of the state
Ancient Civiliation that Confucianism originated
Proposed the beginning of Europe's Scientific Revolution, that Earth revolved around the sun
Fall of rome
Common reason given for the development of Feudalism
Billeting Act of 1765
Required colonies to provide quarters and supplies for Royal troops
Completion of the Railroad in California
Merchants and manufacturers found themselves suddenly exposed to intense competition for those of eastern cities, loss of jobs with railroad done
Comprised of Near East
Tigres, Euphrates Valley, Fertile Crescent, and Nile Vallyez
Sugar Act of 1764
Forbade import of rum, duty on molasses , wines, silks, coffee and number of luxury items
Postclassic period (800 AD)
Aztecs are from this period in Mesoamerican History
Mexican American War
Ended Feb 2, 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Transcontinental Railroad
Solved the problem of isolation in California 1969
In 1763 a royal proclomation reserved all Western territory between Alleghencies, the Florida's and the Mississippi, and Quebec to be used by the
Central figure in the ancient Inca religion
Epics of Illiad and Odyssey come from
Chandragupta Maurya
Created the first unified state in Inida (Indian) history
In Medieval Europe, the legalization and imperialization of the Christian Faith forever changed the form and function of Christianity by whom
3500 - 3000 BC
Mesopotamian Civilization Period
Magna Carta
Placed limitations on the Crown
Dust Bowl Regugees of 1930's
Grapes of Wrath
Nile Valley (3000 BC)
Egyptian Civilation began
Sierra Nevada
California's two major mountain ranges are the Coast Ranges and...
Declaration of Independence - July 4th 1776
Constitutes legitimate government and under what conditions men were justified in resorting to armed revolution to change it
Chinese Confucian Morality
Japan feudalism had as its basis
Feudalism, Europe Middle Ages Hiearchial Structure
King, Baron, Bishop, Lord, Peasant
Mojave Desert
Largest desert in Calfornia
Political party that wanted close ties with England
Created the first written philosophy
Kushite Religion, Egyptian Religion
California 1821 - 1846 dominant institutions were
Money, Econcomy
Sounded the Death knell of feudalism
Economic and social units of life in early Middle Ages
Earliest form of Capitalism
A series of Islands
Diversity of Native Americans
European settlers to the New World in the 16th & 17th Century often failed to recognize the
Religon of ancient Indian (India) civilization
Primary economic activity in Arabia
Andrew Jackson
In 1829 inaugural address, he set a policy to relocate Eastern Indians
Known for first explorers (1000 BC), traders, colonizers, first alphabet, dominated Mediteranean commerce, exported glass and purple dye
Black Code Laws
Prior to Jim Crow Laws, prior to reconstruction
Feather art in the form of a war bonnet
Cherokee and Iroquois Art
Decorated pottery and baskets, quiltwork and beadwork, and wood ritual masks
Paved Roads
Romans were first civilization to build..
Check their Westward Expansion
The French threatened not only the British Empire, but the American colonists for holding the Mississippi Valley, Franch could...
Indus River played a central part in this civilizations history
Caucus (political system)
An informal meeting of party leaders who decide which candidates they will support
Greatest contribution from ancient Greece to Western Civilization
Tan Dynasty
One of China's greatest dynasties
China's first dynasty
Scientific Revolution in Pre-Modern Europe
Europes Renaissance, Age of Discovery, Copernican Revolution
Earliest sophisticated culture of the Andean Highland civilization
Stamp Act
No taxation without representation
Animal that became synonymous with the fur trade in the first half of the 19th century
Primary factor that allowed Missouri to become a slave state in 1821
The admission of Maine as a free state preserved the slave state/free state balance in the senate
Declaration of Sentiments, Seneca Falls
"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men and women are created equal....."
The Colorado River
Water distribution system that provides water to the Imperial Valley
Connected by El Camino Real
Common characteristic that linked missions, presidios, and pueblos
Made Indians citizens of Mexico
After Mexico defeated the Spanish and gained control of California, the Mexican goverment....
Cattle ranching
Prior to Mexican American war, the most important industry in California was (1821 - 1848)
"We can do it" poster of a woman
Campaign to encourage women to sek work in wartime industrial plants
Los Angeles in 1960-2000 became the new "Ellis Island"
Background of immigrants had same identifying factors that were associated with the immigration to Ellis Island in the early 20th century
Group that historically experienced the most discrimination (California Constitution statutes)
River Valleys where there was an abudance of fertile soil and fresh water
Relations among social groups
Hinduism strongly influenced ancient indian civilation through
Annual floods, enriched lands for farming and cattle, timber and iron ore deposits, capital on major trade routes, riches from gold and emerald mines
The Legal code of france
Influence of ancient Rome on later development of European civilization
Decline of the Roman empire
Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire
The code of chivalry in European Knights
Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire
Emergence of Universities
Catholic churches influenced development in medieval Europe
The mountains of western South American were an impediment to building an empire, prompting the development of sophisticated engineering technologies
Discover westward route to Asia
Voyage of exploration commanded by John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Henry Hudson
Massachusettes Bay
Establishment of a colony to create a Bible commonwealth
Significant major development in American Revolution
Patriot victory at Battle of Saratoge (1777) prompted by France to sign a treaty with American leaders
Articles of confederation designed to
Protect sovereignty of the states
Union Advantage
Strong manufacturing base
Confederate Advantage
More experienced officer corps
Protect sovereignty of the states
1876 Election
Immigration Reform Act 1965
Substantial increase in Asian population
Aircraft industry/WWII
Industry major turning point in California
Primary factor of collapse of Aztec and Inca Empires
Lack of resistance to European disease disseminated the populations
Development of early Mesopotamia Civilizations
Irrigation projects in the barren southern plains, agricultural advances, much food, allowed civilization to develop
The Qin Dynasty
Created Great Wall of China, use of currency, weight and measure standardized, tomb of terra-cotta army
Impact of Industrial Revolution on Europe
Division of defined classes, merchant middle class
The counter-Reformation
Founding of the Society of Jesus, revival of the inquisition, estblishment of the Index of Prohibited Book, Adherence to the Council of Trent
Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam
Religions established in China as a result of the cross-cultural contact associated with the Silk Road
Geographical factors that accounted for emergence of Byzantium as a powerful trading empire
Constantinople controlled both the Mediterranan Sea and the Black Sea trade routes
Influence of Islamic scholarship development of European civilization during the middle ages
Introduction of new math concepts such as algebra and calculus
Positive result of the war in 1812
American industry propspered when trade was restricted by the British during the war
Central focus of lewis and clark expedition
to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase
Mechanisms by which Islam has spread throughout history
Military conquest and trade incentives
Period of European hisotry that produced advances in science that revolutionalized of Earths's place wtihin the universe
Chinese philosophical system that emphasizes living in balance with the natural world, everything has its place yin and yang
Emphasizes mindfulness of an orderly society
Practiced primarily in India and very little in China
Law of supply and demand
Search of a Sea route to Asia
Driving force of explorations of Americas
Practiced by European nations in an effort to assure properity by regulating and coordinting the production of goods, while protecting domestic economies from foreign competition.
Economic philosophy espoused by Karl Marx that distributes wealth to the workers that produce it
Extends socialistic redistribution of wealth by the state to include government control in social and political areans as well
An informal system of the exchange of goods and services among individuals
The Steam Engine
Invention that launched the industrial age
Mayflower Compact
First declaration of self-government in the new world
No taxation without representation
Washington D.C. shares this complaint
George Mason in objections to the constituion represented which group
Missouri Compromise of 1820 was designed to resolve conflict in this area
Blockade Southern ports
Union used Naval force most effectively to
The Homestead Act of 1862 led to a displacement of this group
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
Restrict growth of corporations
Advances in transportation and communication
Greatest effect on the growing political, economic and social cohesion of the US during the last half of the 19th century
Bowl and Basket Weaving
Shared by geographically seperated native California people in pre-columbian times
Hydraulic Mining
Enviornmentally destructive mining process in the Gold Rush and wound down in 1853
Work on the Transcontinental Railroad
Attracted the largest number of Chinese immigrants to US after gold rush
Popular Sovereignty
1911 new California State Legislation inspired by the national progressive movement
Angel Island
California's "Ellis Island" entry point for many European immigrants to US
Dust Bowl
Caused a wave of immigration into California in the 1930's
Salton sea
Imperial Valley water flow from Colorado River, tried to increase water flow and the flood created the
Lake Shasta, Lake Arrowhead
Manmade lakes
Mono Lake
Natural lake that has been threatened by the water needs of L.A.
The Great Depression
WPA Central Valley Project irrigated large portions of the central valley at expense of wetlands to the north, US government response to which event
WPA (Works Projects Administration)
Federal Government response to the Great Depression, overwhelming unemployment and need for public works. Many dams and large sclae projects, Central Valley Project, Shasta Dam (second largest dam in the US, after Hoover dam - also WPA project)
Credited with first implementation of democracy into government (citizens held public meetings, pass law, choose officials) No slaves, women or foreigners
First written language
Hammurabi - The first written code of law
American civilizations in chronological order
Olmec, Mayan, Toltec, Aztec
Sale of indulgences
Caused the Protestant Reformation
Belief in reincarnation, belief that through meditation one can frind freedom from suffering and enter Nirvana, respect for all living creatures
Religious book of Islam
Vasco da Gama
First European explorer to reach Inida by sea
Juan Cabrillo
First European explorer to reach coastal California (1542)
Ferdinand Magellan
First European explorer to circumnavigate the globe
Francisco de Coronado
Explored area that was to become the southwest of US (1540)
Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida in 1513, claimed area for spain
Most closely associated with the development of a theocracy in America
Puritan New England
Theocracy, a governemtn by ecclesiastical authorities, civil authority residing with clergy.
Three original state constitutions required
Land ownership and wealth were prerequisites to direct involvement in the government
Direct result of the contested presidentelection of 1876
Federal troops were withdrawn from the South, ending Reconstruction
Associated with the industrialization of the United States
The trade-union movement, government protection of management through the use of court injunctions, the growth of suburbs, the dehumanizing aspects of technological innovations
San Francisco to Lake Tahoe Geographical Features
Coast Range, Central Valley, Sierra Nevada
Mining practice that had the greatest negative impact on both farmers and steamboat companies
Hydraulic mining
Used tar to waterproof their canoes
Primary purpose of the Mission System
To maintain self-sufficient agricultural economy that produced a food surplus
Most serious objection to the Japanese relocation plan in CA
Without evidence of disloyalty it demonstrated that constitutional safeguards could be rendered ineffective in wartime
Governor of CA has this right, but President of US does not
Power to veto specific sections of a spending bill
Primary reason for dramatic Mexican population increase in CA
They replaced the Japanese as low-paid agricultural workers
Change of date of presidential primaries from March to February in CA
to provide a greater voice in determining national politics
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution
To link the demands of women to the greivance of the Revolutionary generation
Center region of US (minus texas)
The United States obtained posession of this region in an 1846 treaty with Great Britian
An important development in CA society during Mexican rule 1821-1848
Growing criticism of the mission system prompted efforts to transfer mission holding into private hands
Latino political power grew largely in 1990
Growing proportion of Latinos in CA population
Associated withe end of antiquity
The Roman Empire
Features of ancient India
Influenced by Hinduism, underwent waves of invasion from Persia and Asia, divided into multiple regions
Fluid social structure
Not a feature of ancient Inida
Birth oF Civilization atributed to
Transiton of hunting and gathering to agriculture in early Mespotamia
European Society under feudalism
Granting land use within a fief, ceremonies of homage and fealty, vassals commitment to provide military service to a lord
NOT a feature of European society under feudalism
Gold over land assets as currency
Influenced by christianity
Sanctification of knighthood, the sacking of Constantinople and other parts of Asia minor, the waning of the practice of alchemy as a medicine
Attempt to change base metals into gold
Characteristics of the European Renissance
A revival of learning based on classical sources, development of highly realistic linear perspective in art, discarding of the Aristolean "final cause" in favor of scientific method
NOT characteristic of european Renissance
Great advances in the field of metal making
Free market capitalism
Maya Indians
A polytheistic society located in Central America that made great advances in science and mathematics, but collapsed due to unknown causes
British colony founded by puritans seeking to create a new, pure church in the americas
French Indian War Victory
British acquired Florida as a result
Reasons for American Revolution
Freedom of religion, commercial considerations, overpopulation
Middle Passage
Portion of the triangular trade route used in the Atlantic slave trade
Factors that led to American Revolution
Forced quartering of British soldiers, excessive tarriffs, Intolerable acts
Principle of Dec. of Independence
Enlightenment concepts such as natural law and self-determination, dissolving allegiances to the British crown, clear listing of the colonies, reasons for rebellion
US Constitution differed from Articles of Confederation
I provided for a strong central government and federal taxation
Products of the Industrial Revolution
Development of new weaving and ironworking techniques, vast expansion and improvement in the roads and waterways, greatly increased prosperity and political power for middle class
The Gentleman's Agreement - 1907
Most restricted Japanes immigration to US
Contributed to dramatic population increase in CA
CA land boom (1880's), gold rush (1850), the great depression (1930's)
United States and CA governments similar
Both have executive, judicial and legislative branch
Industry most damaged by spending cutbacks in 1970
Egypt and Mesopatamia
Both a bureaucratically administered state
Agean civilization developed a flourishing culture as a direct result of trade and commerce on the Aegean Sea
Yellow river
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Nile River
Hellenistic age
Fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures, increase in international trade and commerce, end of the Greek city-state system as a major political setting
Russia's desire to expand in the direction of the Ottoman Empire
Gain permanent access to the Mediterranean Sea
Feudalism in the early Middle Ages
No formal countries, but the fiefdom held economic and political power
Europe referred to as Christendom during Middle Ages
Church became the preserver of civilization in both political and religious life
Scientist that supported heliocentric (sun centered) theory of solar system
Industrial Revolution in England
Large quanitites of coal and iron, rapid increase in middle class, large supply of cheap labor
John Locke's assumption of natural laws contrasted
Economic system facilitates Darwinism
Initial control of Southwest of N. America and Florida
Initial control of Mississippi River, Louisiana Territory, Great Lakes, Canada
No founded as a result of religious persecution
Founded as a result of religious persecution
Maryland, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania
Why French aidid the English during American Revolution
France viewed the revolution as a means to gain territory at the expense of Britain, France wanted to limit the economic growth of England, France and England were already at war on the European continent
Declaration of Independence
Ideals of social contract borrowed heavily from John Locke
Federalism practiced in early Republic
Local governments are sovereign in matters of local concern
Northeast section of the U.S. opposed to 1812 war
Because of the expansionist goals of the West
Fundamental concept of Magna Carta in American law
The concept of religious freedom
Major military strategy of North based on dividing the south
Mississipppi River
True of Andrew Johnson's presidency during reconstruction
Vetoed numerous Radical Republican congressional acts
Emergence of National Parties in US
Federalist, Democratic, Whig, Republican
Economic development of American west during 19th century
Barbed wire
Main immigrants to US from 1840 - 1880
Northern and Western Europe
Northeast industrial expansion before Civil War
Abundant natural resources, access to Great Lakes and ports of foreign shipments, availability of cheap labor
CA Indians prior to European contact
CA had greatest concentration of Indians in N. America
Gold rush created statehood, impacted landscape of US because
Temprary resolution to the free/slave state controversey
Majority of native Californians lived in or near
Central Valley and the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
Cesar Chavez - Political reforms in
Unionization of migrant farm workers
Hiram Johnson as governor of CA, progessive movement failed to ahceive these reforms
Adding amendments to the CA constitution to protect workers rights, passage of initiative, referendum, and recall, establishing a railroad commision
Native Californian who became president
Richard Nixon
CA state flower
Golden Poppy
CA state tree
CA state freshwater fish
Golden Trout
CA state bird
Greatest increase in migratio to CA
1940 - 1950
AD 250 - 900
1325 AD - 1521 AD
AD 1200 - 1533