How many square kilometers does the Russian Federation (Russia) have presently?
17.1 Million
What countries lie along Russia's Western Border?
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine
What countries lie along Russia's Southern Border?
China, Mongolia, North Korea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan
Which mountain range serves as the natural boundary between Europe and Asia?
Ural Mountains
Why does Russia have limited access to international waters?
The way through the Mediterranean is dependent on who controls the straits, the Northern Arctic coast is frozen, and the Pacific access to the East is temperamental
How is Russia limited in farming?
Their growing season is much shorter and only 7% of their land is usable
In what four important ways has Russia's geography affected its history?
1. The lack of natural boundaries leaves it open to attacks and raids 2. The lack of usable coasts for International waters drives leaders into expansion 3. The massive size has caused problems with defense, comms, travel, and ethnicity 4. The encompassing of both European and Asian territory exhibits both familiar and exotic elements in Russian culture
What time period did Slavic tribes first settle along the Russian rivers?
About 800 B.C.
Who wiped out the first Russian settlers, the Cimmerians, in 700 B.C.?
The Scythians, a nomadic tribe of horseriders
Who took over control from the Scythians of the Russian area in 200 B.C.?
The Sarmatians
Who took over Russia after the Sarmatians in 200 A.D.?
Germanic Goths
Who pushed the Germanic Goths out of the Russian area in 370 A.D.?
The Huns
Who finally defeated the Huns in 451 A.D.?
The Franks
After the fall of which dominating power did the Slavs in Russia have their first chance at self-governance in 453?
The Huns
What tribe took control of the Slavs in Russia around 560 A.D.?
The Avars
What did the rule of the Avars prompt in the Russian area?
A mass migration of Slavs into the Baltic region
Who took over the Russian area after the Avars around 650 A.D.?
Turkish Khazars, who were much less brutal and more cosmopolitan, establishing a Eurasian trade center
Who was the last group to enter the Russian area in the early times?
The Scandinavian Varangians, in 800 AD
How did the Varangians expand their influence in the Russian area?
They connected the Baltic and Black seas with a trade route
According to what document, did Kiev invite the Varangian Rus to impose order in 862 AD?
The Russian Primary Chronicle
How many brothers does Rurik have?
What do historians consider the event that constitutes the founding of Russian civilization?
Oleg's capturing of Kiev as a critical overland juncture
What resulted in the founding of Kievan Rus in 882 AD?
The intermingling of Varangian traders and Slavs in the 9th century
During what century was Kievan Rus at its zenith of political, cultural, and economic development?
11th century
In what century did Kievan Rus fall to the Mongols?
13th century
What strengthened the early Rus identity?
increased wealth, linguistic development, and cultural enrichment
What constituted most of the Kievan market?
Furs, wax, honey, flax, hemp, burlap, hops, sheepskin, and other hides
What led to the first development of decentralization in Kievan Rus?
The peaceful acquiring of land
In what century was Kievan Rus first considered a recognizable force?
10th century
What city became the rival of Kiev , politically, economically, and in terms of power
Where was Rurik thought to have been born?
In what century did Novgorod win religious independence from Kiev?
12th century
In what period was Novgorod absorbed by the Moscow state?
The Appanage period
Under what prince of Kiev was the state's political power consolidated?
Prince Sviatoslav
What two marketable products were injected into the market increasingly as a result of new technology under the rule of Prince Sviatoslav?
Crops and timber
Who was responsible for the introduction of Christianity in Russia in 988?
Prince Vladimir
What two saints developed the written language of Kiev and served as apostles to the Slavs?
Cyril and Methodius
Whose wealth did that of the clerics in Kiev rival?
The princes
In what century did Yaroslav the Wise rule?
11th century
Who was responsible for the ending of the civil war after Prince Vladimir's death?
Yaroslav the Wise
Who firmly established the laws of Kievan Rus?
Yaroslav the Wise
Who moved the metropolitan to Kiev and saw the rise of the first Slav to that position?
Yaroslav the Wise
Under whose rule of Kiev did iconographic art originate?
Yaroslav the Wise
What led to the demise of all of Yaroslav the Wise's contributions to Kievan Rus?
He split up his state into kingdoms ruled by his sons
What fraction of the time between Yaroslav's death and Mongol invasion was spent in civil war in Russia?
What caused the rise of serfdom in Russia?
The infighting, uneven application of the law, and disregard for social structure after Yaroslav's death
What city's downfall led to Kievan Rus' downfall?
What is Appanage(udel)?
A method of giving power, titles, offices, and land to extended family
Who benefited from the disunity of Kievan princes after Yaroslav?
The boyars
In what two centuries did Genghis Khan live/conquer?
12th & 13th centuries
Under whose control was the Mongol empire, then called the Golden Horde, solidified for the next two centuries?
Batu Khan
What caused a Mongol invasion of Russian villages and settlements in 1237 AD?
Prince Yuri II refused to pledge allegiance to Batu Khan
What cities did Batu Khan level in 1238?
Ryazan, Koloma, Moscow, and Vladimir-Suzdal
What saved Novgorod from the Mongols?
The coincidence of spring and a quick surrender
What kept the Russian settlements from a post-invasion rebellion against the Mongols?
The Mongols used quick and intense attacks
Who first ruled Novgorod during the Mongol occupancy?
Prince Alexander Nevsky
Why was Novgorod treated with more leniency?
It was an important trading center, and the ruler was loyal to the Mongols
What kept the Mongols from being expelled quickly from Russia?
They gave power to the Appanages, who always fought among themselves
What title was bestowed on Princes that were in the favor of the Mongols, and what did it allow them to do?
Grand Prince, allowed them to call Mongolian armies to fight foreign enemies and Appanages that did not pay tribute
Why did the Orthodox Church grow wealthy at the time of the Mongol occupancy?
They were exempt from taxes and could collect tithes from the Russian elite
What city became established as the most important political, economic, social, and military city in Russia toward the end of the Mongol occupancy?
What began the disintegration of Mongol rule in Russia?
The fracturing of the Golden Horde
On what year was the occupation by Mongols thought to come to an end?
What negative effects do some historians attribute to the Mongol invasion?
The prevention of a Russian Renaisance and hindrance of social, political, and economic growth
What effect did Mongol control of Russia have on its resources?
They drained much of Russia's money, material, and resources, and crippled the artisan and skilled laborer class
How did the Mongol invasion affect the class divisions?
It made them worse, and allowed a form of feudalism to take over afterward
What is the only cultural influence of the Mongolians in Russia?
Linguistic, and only with some terms in trade
What year was Moscow first destroyed by the Mongolians?
Under whose leadership did Moscow rebuild and rebound?
Under who did Moscow secure its position at the center of Russian power?
Vasili I
What undermined nearly a century's worth of progress after Vasili I's death?
The unclear rules of succession
What caused the longest civil conflict in Russia?
Vasili II's claim to the rule of Moscow being contested by his brothers
How many years long was the longest civil conflict in Russia?
20 years
Who was responsible for hastening the end of Mongol rule?
Vasili II
Whom did Vasili II offer a princedom to in the 15th century?
Kasimov, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan
In what century did the Mongols unsuccessfully attempt to invade Moscow?
15th century
Who came to power after Vasili II?
Ivan III, or Ivan the Great
How did Ivan the Great consolidate power in Russia?
He bought, seized, and inherited as many principalities as possible
What was the most important of Ivan the Great's acquisitions?
What was the last major holdout from Ivan the Great's state?
What title did Ivan the Great take on after finally defeating the Mongols?
Sovereign of All Russia
Who completed the absorption of all the Russian Appanages?
Vasili III
In what ways is Moscow similar to Kiev?
It lays on the crossroads of trade routes, provides easy access to waterways, and has a central location
How was Moscow able to expand its power without being apprehended by the Mongolians?
They kept excellent relation with the Mongols while expanding
In what year did Moscow become the religious capital of Russia?
What two conflicts did the close ties between church and state in Russia lead to?
1.The Novgorodian Nil Sorsky tried to relax the treatment of heretics, butt was refuted by the central Church 2. Sorsky allied himself with monks called non-possesors who opposed the vast territory of the Church, and were backed by the aristocracy
What has Sorsky's legacy led to after his death?
His canonization by the Orthodox Church
Who succeeded Vasili III?
Ivan IV (The Terrible)
What happened after Ivan IV's mother died, while he was still 8?
The boyars took over, and used their power to their own ends
How did Ivan IV reassert the power of the royal bloodline?
He had the metropolitan crown him Tsar of All Russia
What century did Ivan IV rule during?
16th century
What led to the Time of Troubles in Russia?
Ivan IV's unchecked power and mental instability
Who did Ivan IV marry?
Anastasia Romanova
What did Ivan IV do for the power of the Tsardom?
He reorganized the military, garnered support from the ends of his empire, and eliminated corruption
How did Ivan IV regulate the affairs of the Church?
He established the Council of Hundred Chapters
What changes did Ivan IV enact on the military?
He organized the army by rank and merit, and modernized their equipment
How big was Russia at the end of Ivan IV's reign compared to modern day Russia?
1/4 the size
What victory inspired Ivan IV to build St. Vasily's in Moscow?
the victory over Kazan
What military campaign of Ivan IV's was not successful, and ended up costing him more than it was worth?
the campaign against Livonia
Who did Ivan IV think was behind the political resistance to his Livonia campaign?
The boyar aristocracy
What is seen as the initial cause of Ivan IV's mental instability?
His wife's death
What were Ivan IV's demands, if he were to be ruler again?
A separate government, or oprichnina, in the Russian state
What was Ivan IV's army of political police known as?
What were most of the orders Ivan IV gave his oprichniki after creating the army?
orders to destroy who Ivan thought were his enemies
Before Ivan IV disbanded the Oprichniki in 1572, how many people had been killed by his campaign of terror?
tens of thousands
What was the size of the Russian empire under Ivan IV compared to modern Russia's size?
Who inherited the throne after Ivan IV?
Tsar Theodore
Who was regent to Tsar Theodor, and the actual ruler of Russia?
Boris Godunov
What heritage did Boris Godunov have?
Why did Boris Godunov secure the position of Patriarch in Moscow?
To gain favor from Tsar Theodor
What is the period of time between 1598 and 1613 known as?
The Time of Troubles
What wiped out nearly a third of the Russian population during the Time of Troubles?
Widespread Famine
Who was the first non-Rurikov Tsar?
Boris Godunov
Who was impersonated at least three times during the Time of Troubles?
Dmitri, Theodor's son
What was the first semblance of a Parliament in Russia?
The zemskii sobor
Who was elected to start a new dynasty for Russia, and end the Time of Troubles?
Micheal Romanov