What is the economic theory of mercantilism?
economic theory that a country should become self sufficient.
What two things did the "home" or "mother" country expect their colonies to provide?
Raw materials and markets for finished products
What was the second goal of mercantilism?
Balance of trade and to increase the national treasury.
Define Balance of Trade?
selling more than you buy
What did the Navigation Acts require?
• goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships.
• All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least three-quarters English or colonial.
• The colonies could export certain products only to England.
• Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port.
Which colony protected the most about the passage of the Navigation Acts?
Why did colonial smuggling upset the British so much?
They weren't getting all the raw material and making all the money
which English king created the Dominion of New England?
King james II
What was the Dominion of New England?
land from southern Maine to New Jersey was united into one vast colony
What were the three major changes that were made in Massachusetts Charter of 1691?
called for the king to appoint the governor of Massachusetts and required more religious toleration and non-Puritan representation in the colonial assembly.
What distracted England in the late 1680's?
France, which was competing with England for control of Europe.
How did the parliament try to strengthen the Navigation Acts after the Glorious Revolution?
smuggling trails held in English Admiralty, created a board of trade
What is salutary neglect?
beneficial neglect that allowed colonial government to form.
What was the real purpose of the colonial system?
To make money for Britain
What raw materials were traded from the colonies to England?
Raw materials lumber, fur, fish, and tobacco
The colonies received what finished products from England?
English gave furniture, utensils, books, and china
Who was appointed the colonial governor for the Dominion of New England?
Sir Edmund Andros
The new royal governor for the Dominion of New England upset many by doing what three things?
Sir Edmund Andros, Questioned the law fullness of the Puritan religion, Enforced the Navigation Act, and He didn't ask before he taxed things.
James II was not well liked in England for what reason?
He was Roman Catholic
How was colonial government structured?
Governor, advisory council, local assembly
What reduced the number of towns and cities throughout the South?
Agriculture in the form of Plantation system.
Why were plantations mostly self-sufficient?
They grew everything they needed, with ships that came to them
What ethnic group settled much of Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina?
The Scots-Irish settled what sections of the South?
Western part of north Carolina
In what areas of instruction did women in the south receive the most instruction?
Domestic tasks and social graces
The indentured servants who came to the colonies mostly belonged to what group?
Young White men
What percentage of the colonial population was made up of indentured servants?
1/2 to 2/3 of the population
Why did many potential indentured servants decide not to come to the colonies?
The death rate
Why did plantation owners begin to turn more toward the use of African slaves?
They were theres for life
What were the three parts of triangular trade (locations only)?
New England, Africa, Carribean
What products were traded on each leg of the triangular trade route?
1)Rum and finished products shipped from New England to Africa and Traded for African slaves.
2)African slaves picked up and shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean where they were sold for sugar and molasses.
3)Sugar and Molasses then shipped to New England distiller's to be refined into Rum.
What was the middle passage?
What kind of ship board conditions did slaves have to endure to during the middle passage?
Disease, malnourishment, whippings, lack of sanitation
What percentage of slaves worked in the fields?
80% to 90%
Slaves that worked as domestic servants, usually performed what jobs?
Black smith carpentar
What became an important cultural focal point for many slaves?
The most violent of the early slave rebellions was?
What were the three largest cash crops grown and sold in the south?
What was it about the rivers in the south that allowed plantations to do without cities?
they were deep and wide enough for sea worthy vesels
What everyday tasks were women in the south expected to perform?
cooking, sewing, laundry, milking the cows, slaughtering pigs, and tending the garden
Those who came to the colonies as indentured servants were most often trying to escape what kind of future in England?
Slaves who worked at tradesmen usually performed what crafts?
black smith, carpenter, brick layers
What happened to children whose parents were sold by masters?
they were adopted by other slave families
slaves who escaped tried to join what group?
In the ten years between 1650 and 1750 how much faster did the colonial economy grow than they British economy?
twice as fast
The two areas of the colonies that grew the most were?
Middle and New England Colonies
What modern conveniences of the times did northern cities offer their residents?
parks, paved roads, oil lamps, police patrols
What did problems did northern colonies cities have to contend with?
lack of firewood, clean water, and sanitation
What immigrant groups settled the northern colonies?
Germans, Scots, dutch, Scandinavians, jews, Mennonites
What rights did slaves have in the north that they did not have in the south?
slaves could sue and could be sued
When and where did the witchcraft trials take place?
What were some of the contributing factors that set the stage for the witch trials?
Witchcraft trials were a symptom of the political and religious upheaval going on in the colony at the time.
What was the Great Awakening?
style of religion that was intended to revive peoples commitment to the church and God.
What did the Great Awakening emphasize?
Who was is the puritan minister given credit for starting the Great Awakening?
What was the Enlightenment?
a scientific movement to gain knowledge through the use of reason and the scientific method
What did the Enlightenment emphasize?
human reason and scientific analysis
Who were some of the great Enlightenment thinkers?
Copernicus, Galileo, isaac Newton
How were New England farms different from southern farms/plantations?
They produced several different crops instead of one.
What were the main crops grown in the middle colonies?
livestock, wheat, corn, cattle, hogs
What were the three contributing factors reduced the power of the puritan church?
massachusetts charter that required religious freedom allowed non puritans to vote, allowed non puritans to serve on the colonial assembly
Who was England's greatest rival for lands in North America?
Who founded the city of Quebec and when was it founded?
1608 Henry de chaplain
Who claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France?
Why were French relations with the Native American generally better than the English relations with Native Americans?
French allowed Native Americans to do most of the trapping and then traded with them for furs
What sparked fighting between France and the British in North America?
the establishment of fort Duquesne
Who did the governor of Virginia choose to lead the troops sent to drive the French out?
What was the outpost called that was established by the Virginian troops sent to attack the French?
Who dominated the first part of the French and Indian War?
Which Native American tribe decided to join the British and colonial war effort?
What was the decisive battle that won the war for the British and colonials?
Battle of Quebec
What treaty ended the French and Indian War?
Treaty of Paris 1763
The Treaty of Paris -1763 divided North America up in what ways?
Great Britain received all French lands East of the Mississippi River (Including Florida) - Spain received all lands West of the Mississippi River(including city of New Orleans). - France kept only Newfoundland and some of their Caribbean islands
What was the proclamation of 1763 supposed to do?
Designed to prevent colonist from moving into the Ohio River Valley
Writs of Assistance were?
Writ of Assistance - basically a search warrant that allowed British troops to search colonial homes and businesses if they thought they might have smuggled goods
What did the Sugar Act do?
1) Cut tax on molasses
2) Placed a tax on other every day items
3) Strengthen smuggling laws
What area of land was causing tensions between the French and British in North America?
Ohio river valley
Who was the Native American leader who led forces against the British after the end of the French and Indian War?