American System
an economic stimulus plan to bolster domestic trade. North, South and West would sustain one another, eliminating the need for dependence on foreign goods
Tariff of 1816
Tariff designed to aid US industry such as textile and iron. Cheap British goods flooded market after War of 1812, leading Congress to protect US business by taxing foreign goods
Erie Canal
363 mile long artificial waterway built to create a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. Established NYC as the commercial capital of the United States
Industrial Revolution
the transition from production by hand to mass production by machines, which sparked incredible economic and social change in America. It helped raise the standard of living, created the middle class, and led to a decline in the cost of goods.
Mass Production
the production of goods in large quantities, made possible by the use of machinery and the division of labor
Samuel Slater
British engineer who brought British textile technology to American, modifying it for US use. He immigrated at the age of 21, won financial backing of Rhode Island capitalist Moses Brown, and went on to design the first textile mills.
Textile Mill
factory where raw materials (cotton) are woven by machines (power looms) into clots. Its development led to an increase in labor opportunities in the North and a greater demand for Southern cotton
Eli Whitney
inventor whose machines allowed for products to be made at much faster and more efficient paces. Created the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Cotton Gin
a machine that quickly and efficiently cleaned the seeds from cotton fibers. This was 50 times faster that handpicking, making cotton highly profitable and prolonged the profitability of slavery
Interchangeable Parts
components that are made to specifications that ensure that they are identical and will fit into any assembly of the same type. This allows easy assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of the person doing the assembly or repair. Allows for greater mass production
Wage Slaves
term used to draw an analogy between slavery and factory based wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person. The term was used to criticize exploitation of labor, seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and management (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages).
Mill Girls
unmarried farm girl, under the age of 30 who worked under strict supervision and scrutiny. Women were typically paid ½ as much as men for the same factory work
poverty stricken immigrants that would take the low paying jobs striking workers refused to do. These immigrants received negative attention for undermining strikes and organized labor and allowing factory owners to continue exploitation
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Supreme Court decision that determined that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, and instead an institution protected by worker's freedom of assembly. It also upheld the right of a worker to go on strike without legal ramification.
Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and employees aimed at reaching agreements to regulate working conditions. The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong.
strong belief that the interests of a particular nation are of primary importance. Also, the belief that a people who share a common history and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.
James Monroe
Democratic-Republican President (1816-1824). His Presidency coincided with the rise of nationalism and the economic prosperity brought about by the industrial revolution. Presided over rapid expansion, and through the Monroe Doctrine, issued a warning for Europeans to not intervene in America's affairs.
Era of Good Feelings
marked a period in the political history of the US under President Monroe that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the War of 1812
Panic of 1819
1st major financial crisis in the US followed by a general collapse of the economy persisting through 1821. The severity of the downturn was compounded by excessive speculation (risky business transactions) in public lands, fueled by the unrestrained issue of paper money by Western "Wildcat" banks.
Henry Clay
Speaker of the House from Kentucky, nicknamed the "Great Compromiser" for his ability to find common ground between Northern and Southern interests. Brokers the Missouri Compromise.
Missouri Compromise
series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between free and slave states. Missouri becomes a slave state, balanced by Maine becoming a free state. In addition, a line is drawn at the Southern border of Missouri where slavery was legal South of the line and was abolished North of it.
Marshall Court
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court made several landmark rulings that blocked individual state interference in the economy and into interpretation of the Constitution, dramatically expanding the power and influence of the federal government.
McCullouch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case that established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's expressed powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Necessary and Proper clause
Adams-Onis Treaty
a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy.
Monroe Doctrine
a policy of US opposition to any European interference in affairs of the Western Hemisphere. European expansion would be seen a threat to US sovereignty and dangerous to the nation's peace and safety.
Jacksonian Democracy
political movement toward greater democratic involvement for the common man symbolized by Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Sought to end government monopoly by the elites.
Corrupt Bargain
Jackson wins popular vote and electoral college over Adams in 1824, but not with required majority of electoral votes to become President. House of Representatives resolves tie, awarding the Presidency to Adams. In return, Adams names Speaker of the House Henry Clay his Secretary of State. The illegitimacy of his election cost Adams credibility.
John Quincy Adams
President from 1824-1828. Desired to continue Monroe style politics based on nationalism in an era of increasing sectional divide. His policies were ultimately sabotaged by opposition from Jackson supporters.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 tariff increase that Southerners believed to be enriching the North at South's expense. Tariff put on British goods, forcing South to buy more expensive US goods. Triggers a nullification crisis in South Carolina.
New Democracy
Jacksonian term for the removal of land ownership as a prerequisite for voting rights. US achieves universal white male suffrage in 1828.
Andrew Jackson
President from 1828-1836. Leader of the Democratic Party, popular war hero and champion of the common man. His policies greatly expanded Executive Branch powers and made the Presidency the visible center of American government. Famous for Indian Removal Act, the South Carolina Nullification Crisis and the dismantling of the 2nd Bank of the US.
Spoils System
practice of an incoming President firing former appointees of the executive branch and replacing them with their own allies.
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson consulted with newspaper editors who kept him up to date with his critics and the public opinion. Enemies criticized it as the "Kitchen Cabinet" saying they entered the White House through the back door in the kitchen, labeling them as unofficial and under qualified.
Daniel Webster
Senator from MA, leading voice for the expansion of the national government. Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and civil war averted. He worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South.
John C Calhoun
Jackson's VP from 1828-1832, longtime Senator from South Carolina. Supported states rights, and slavery, opposed tariffs. Known for his intense defense of slavery as a positive good, his distrust of nationalism, and for leading the South toward secession from the Union.
Force at of 1833
Jackson authorized the army and the navy to use force against South Carolina if they failed to pay duties on the tariffs
South Carolina Tariff Resolution
Henry Clay proposed a law that would gradually lower the tariffs over an 8 year period. South Carolina withdrew their nullification ordinance, but the sectional divide in the US went unresolved.
Nicholas Biddle
Bank of US President, in response to Jackson's bank veto, demanded immediate payment of loans, froze extending new loans to try to pressure Jackson into rechartering the Bank
Wildcat Banks
state banks that federal government deposited money in order to avoid using the Bank of US. Loyal to Jackson and the Democratic party.
tribe that tried to adopt US customs, adopting a system of settled agriculture, devising an alphabet, and creating a written constitution. Despite winning political right to their land in the US Supreme Court, they were forcibly relocated via the Indian Removal Act during the Jackson presidency
Indian Removal Act
Federal Government provided funds to negotiate relocation treaties. This forced Natives east of the Mississippi to move West of US boundaries.
Worchester v. Georgia
Supreme Court decision, recognized Cherokees as a political community, with same rights as all Americans. This meant that they could govern their own affairs and had a right to their land.
Trail of Tears
Cherokee people forcibly removed from Georgia to Oklahoma. The relocated people suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en route, and more than ten thousand died before reaching their various destination
Democratic Party
political party with support concentrated in the South and in the emerging West. Feared the concentration of economic and political power in the federal government, preferring state oversight. They believed that government intervention benefited special-interest groups and favored the rich, therefore government should stay out of people's business.
Martin Van Buren
successor of Jackson and master organizer of the Democratic Party. He inherited Jackson's bank war and financial troubles, which ultimately doomed his Presidency
Specie Circular
with dollar in flux, the federal government insisted that federal lands only be purchased with gold and silver, which has stable value. Since no one had specie, buying and selling froze in the economy
Panic of 1837
financial crisis in which banks closed and credit system collapsed, resulting in bankruptcies and high unemployment. Caused by inflation from wildcat bank not printing, the collapse of the BUS and the Specie Circular
Whig Party
party of the North and successors to the Federalist view of government. Pushed nationalism, the bank of the US, and large scale infrastructure projects to link the country. Created to oppose Jackson's policies.
William Henry Harrison
Whig party candidate who won the election of 1840, campaigning as an outsider to Jackson's bank wars. He died of pneumonia a month after his inauguration, before he was able to enact any Whig programs.