What were 3 factors that led to the start of World War I?
1. rise of nationalism
2. rise of imperialism
3. rise of militarism
What is nationalism?
one's devotion to one's nation
What is imperialism?
competition for colonies while attempting to develop countries
What is militarism?
policy of glorifying military power
What did European countries compete over?
land and resources
What did Otto von Bismarck of Germany do in 1871, because he believed France was a military threat?
formed the Triple Alliance (Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary)
What did Kaiser Wilhelm II do in 1890 to show the world how powerful Germany is?
allowed Germany's treaty with Russia to end
What did Russia do in 1892 as a response to the Triple Alliance?
formed an alliance with France that would force Germany to fight a two-front war
What did Germany do as a response to Russia's alliance with France?
increased the size of its navy equal to that of Great Britain
What did Great Britain do when Germany's navy got bigger?
joined Russia's alliance making the Triple Entente (France, Great Britain, Russia)
What was the main cause of World War I?
growth of nationalism
How did European countries believe disputes should be settled?
on the battlefield
What countries were part of the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
What countries were part of the Allied Powers?
United States, France, Russia, and Great Britain
What happened in 1914 that started World War I?
Gavrilo Princip from Serbia shot Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Hungary
What did Germany do to avoid attacking the German-French border?
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Germany's military strategy that called for a massive attack on France and then quickly defeating Russia
Why was Germany's plan of invading Belgium a mistake?
Belgium gave Germany strong resistance allowing France and Great Britain time to prepare for battle
Who won the first Battle of the Marne River?
What did the first Battle of the Marne River tell both sides?
there would be no quick decisive victory
What was the battlefield between the 2 opposing trenches called?
No man's land
Who was winning World War I in 1915?
neither side, it was a stalemate
What was the longest battle of World War I?
Battle of Verdun
What were some of the deadly new weapons invented during World War I?
1. machine guns
3. poisonous gas
What was President Wilson's original policy of World War I?
policy of neutraliy, it was a European matter
Which side did more Americans support?
What did the German navy do to U.S. ships that upset President Wilson?
stopped U.S. ships bound for neutral countries and searched their cargoes
What did the German navy establish in 1915?
war zone around Great Britain
What did Germany do in 1915 that upset President Wilson?
torpedoed the Lusitania killing 128 Americans
What did President Wilson demand after the Lusitania was sunk?
specific pledges to halt unrestricted submarine warfare
How did Secretary of State William Jennings respond to President Wilson's demands?
resigned, because he said that the United States could not issue ultimatums and remain neutral
What did Germany do to the United States in 1915?
sank the ship "Arabic" killing 2 Americans
What did Germany do to the United States in 1916?
sank the ship "Sussex" killing several Americans
What was the Sussex Pledge?
Germany giving a renewal to sink any ship without warning if it entered the war zone
What was the National Defense Act of 1916?
increased the number of soldiers from 90,000 to 175,000
What did Germany do in 1917?
resumed full scale U-boat warfare sinking 5 American ships
What was the Zimmerman Note of 1917?
Mexican alliance with Germany proposing that Germany would support Mexico in reconquering New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona if Mexico agreed to fight with the Central Powers
What happened as a result of the Zimmerman Note?
United States declared war on Germany
What was the Selective Service Act of 1917?
required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft
All soldiers drafted were treated fairly, regardless of their culture, because they were U.S. soldiers.
they were assigned to separate units
What did Congress do in 1924 as a result of American Indians fighting for the Allies in World War I?
granted American Indians full U.S. citizenship
What were soldiers subjected to after they were drafted and arrived in camp?
1. medical exams
2. learning military rules
What was the American Expeditionary Force?
first U.S. troops sent to France
Did the U.S. soldiers engage in battle when they first arrived in France?
How did the first U.S. soldiers help France?
1. built docks and railroads
2. networked telephone lines
3. built hospitals
4. built storage sheds
5. built camps
How did President Wilson finance World War I?
1. conserved scarce resources
2. redirected industry to the war effort
What were Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds?
citizens giving money to the government for the war effort and being repaid in interest after the war ended
What tactics were used to stimulate enthusiasm for World War I?
What did government do with taxes during World War I?
How did government take complete control of the economy during World War I?
1. setting prices and production levels
2. regulated business towards the war effort
What did Herbert Hoover and the Food Administration do to support the war?
increased agricultural production and conserved food supplies
What did Herbert Hoover promise to encourage agricultural production?
high prices for production
What was the War Industries Board responsible for?
allocating scarce materials and establishing production priorities
How did World War I affect immigration to the United States?
How did American workers respond to the labor shortage?
increased unionization of workers as they began demanding higher wages and better benefits
What other efforts did citizens make to support the war effort?
1. conserved energy
3. planted victory garden
What were founded to give boys and girls the opportunity to support the war?
Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts
What was the Great Migration?
African Americans moving northward to get better jobs
What was the Committee on Public Information?
developed propaganda and increased support for the war effort
What happened to German Americans during World War I?
many lost their jobs
What were some examples of Anti-German sentiment in America during World War I?
1. German books were burned
2. German language courses were cancelled
3. German food not allowed
4. German music not allowed
5. German artwork not displayed
What were the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act?
laws outlawing treason making it illegal to speak, print, write, or publish any discontent against the war effort
Did the Supreme Court rule that the Espionage Act and Sedition Act were constitutional or a violation of the First Amendment?
In 1917, the Allies launched an offensive to break the deadlock. Did it succeed?
No, decreasing morale in Russia and France
What happened in Russia as a result of the failed offensive in 1917?
Russian citizens protested the war overthrowing the Czar
What was Germany able to do after signing a peace treaty with Russia?
concentrate their full military on France
Who won the Second Battle of the Marne River in 1918?
What happened in 1918 that stopped Germany's offensive?
United States entered World War I
What was the first offensive of the Allies with the United States that was the turning point of World War I?
Battle of the Argonne Forest
Who won the Battle of the Argonne Forest?
United States and the Allies
After the defeat at Argonne, what did Germany do?
At the Paris Peace Conference, what did the Allied Prime Ministers insist?
Germany bear the financial cost of the war
What did President Wilson insist at the Paris Peace Conference?
German leaders report to the League of Nations
What countries were created as a result of the break up of the Ottoman Empire?
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
Did Congress support the Treaty of Versailles?
No, League of Nations was established without United States support