Great Plains
the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the United States
Treaty of Fort Laramie
agreement in which the Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along with Missouri River
Sitting Bull
leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux
George Custer
reported that the Black Hills had gold "from the grass roots down"
a plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture
Dawes Act
passed by Congress to "Americanize" the Native Americans; broke up reservations and gave some of the reservation land to individual Native Americans
Battle of Wounded Knee
conflict between the Native Americans and settlers in which a large number of Indians were forced to give up all their weapons and then they were slaughtered
sturdy, short-tempered breeds that were accustomed to the dry grasslands of southern Spain
Chisholm Trail
the major cattle route from San Antonio, Texas through Oklahoma to Kansas
long drive
the over land transport of animals that normally lasted about three months
Homestead Act
passed by Congress and offered 160 acres of land free to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of a household
African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas
freestanding house made by stacking blocks of prairie turf; they were warm in the winter and cool in the summer
Morrill Act
gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
bonanza farm
enormous single-crop spreads created by railroad companies and investors
Oliver Hudson Kelley
started the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers
organization for farmers; purpose was to provide a social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm families
Farmers' Alliances
included many people who sympathized farmers; sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about topics such as lower interest rates on loans and government control over railroads and banks
political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers and laborers
the use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system
gold standard
a monetary system in which the basic unit of currency is defined in terms of a set amount of gold
William McKinley
candidate for the Republican Party for the 1896 election
William Jennings Bryan
delivered an impassioned address to the assembled delegates at the Democratic convention