A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-14th to mid-15th century, and a Northern (trans-Alpine) Renaissance, from roughly the early 15th to early 17th century.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
The pursuit of people suspected of witchcraft, especially in northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold.
Wealthy landowners who were members of the bourgeoisie.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.
English Civil War
Civil War in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I.
A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles.
Balance Of Power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Council Of The Indies
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early 18th century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
The term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent.
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
House Of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.
Coureurs De Bois
(Runners Of The Woods) French fur traders, many of mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America.
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.