Tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs. For example, the wheel made travel easier and the yoke allowed for more efficient farming.
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Schism/ doctrinal differences
A division into two factions or separation into opposing parties. The Great Schism of 1054 split the Christian Church into the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, each with different doctrine.
Epidemic Disease
An epidemic disease is a disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time (ex. influenza, Black Death)
Association of merchants or artisans of a common trade who cooperated to protect their economic interests in ways such as setting fixed prices on certain goods
Tax farming
system of taxation in which the government sells to private individuals the right to collect taxes.
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control by other states.
foreign soldiers who were payed to fight, they were usually not as loyalty
the migration of a religious group due to persecution; the Jews were scatter to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions, languages, or cultures into one; Hellenism diffused from Greek and Persian cultures.
Tribute system
a system in which conquered states were required to give money, or tribute, to the ruling state; used by Mongols, Rome, China, Muslims, etc.
a person who does not accept a particular faith; unbeliever
Chartered cities
a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document or constitution rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws.
the practice of charging a very high rate of interest on loans
a ceremony with an important religious significance (ex. baptism, communion)
A light ship that is easy to maneuver and can sail in shallow water
taxes on imported goods
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
a form of government in which the ruler is controls all aspects of the state and is not restricted by a constitution, laws, or opposition
Joint-stock companies
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses; businesses invested in expeditions to places such as the Americas
Trade diasporas
a migration of people to the outskirts of a city or province who sought to trade with other places
the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church laws; those who were excommunicated could not be buried on sacred ground and could not receive the sacraments
Slave trade
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa; was part of Triangular Trade, also called the "Atlantic System", between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
the act of granting freedom to a slave or slaves
a period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Coerced labor systems
a system where the workers were forced to work based on threats, pressure, or intimidation (ex. slaves, serfs)
an economic policy that sought to increase a countries wealth by increasing internal production, obtaining large amounts of gold and silver, and limiting imports as an effort to gain more money than is lost