Paleolithic Age
(Old Stone Age) from about 750,000 years ago to 14,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers and first simple stone and wood tool use
Mesolithic Age
(Middle Stone Age) 12,000-8,000 B.C.E., stone tools improved and more animals domesticated
Neolithic Age
(New Stone Age) latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere), invention of agriculture
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering, began in the Middle East and spread to other centers
Bronze Age
beginning at about 3000 B.C.E., metalworking became commonplace, starting in the Middle East
Fertile Crescent
core area of agriculture in Mesopotamia
Catal Huyuk
Neolithic village in southern turkey founded about 7000 B.C.E., studied by scientists
formal states characterized by writing, cities, monuments, and elaborate trading patterns
the first civilization, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East
people who invaded Mesopotamia in 3500 B.C.E., known for irrigation techniques, first written language (Cuneiform), and complex religious concepts (religious monuments- ziggurats)
political structures begun by the Sumerians ruled by a king who claimed divine authority and a government who organized all parts of the state
Monumental Architecture
characteristic of civilization, often religious monuments (i.e. ziggrats in Mesopotamia, pyramids in Egypt)
River Valley Civilizations
first civilizations in the Middle East, Egypt, northwestern India, and northern China, most declined by 1200 B.C.E.
picture symbols first used as writing in China
people who invaded Mesopotamia and extended the empire
Babylonian king who introduced the most famous early code of law, involving harsh punishments
Egyptian Civilization
river valley civilization in northern Africa, along the Nile River, formed by 3000 B.C.E.
king of Egypt
Indian Civilization
river valley civilization along the Indus River, formed by 2500 B.C.E., supporting several large cities, including Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Chinese Civilization
river valley civilization along the Huanghe (Yellow) River in China
people not in civilizations
Phoenician Alphabet
first simplified alphabet with 22 letters, emerged in 1300 B.C.E.
developed first monotheistic religion
Zhou Dynasty
Chinese dynasty lasting from 1029-258 B.C.E. featuring decentralized politics but increased cultural innovation and unity
Era of Warring States
402-201 B.C.E., a period at the end of the Zhou dynasty in which the Chinese political system disintegrated
Qin Dynasty
2nd dynasty in China, lasting only about 35 years, during which the first national census was instituted and the Great Wall was begun to be built
Shi Huangdi
the brutal but brilliant ruler of the Qin dynasty
Han Dynasty
3rd dynasty in China, from 202 B.C.E.-220 C.E., centralized Chinese government, expanded territory and began direct contacts with other civilizations
Madate of Heaven
claim of divine rule used to legitimize Chinese emperors
philosophy and system of ethics that dominated Chinese culture based on the teachings of Confucius that stressed respect for social superiors, moderation in behavior, and veneration of tradition (basically do unto others as your status and theirs dictate)
Mandarin bureaucrats
the Han dynasty established an elaborate bureaucracy of about 130,000 people, the emperor Wu Ti established the first civil service exams
pragmatic Chinese system of political thought based on strict discipline and restraint, with an authoritarian state that ruled by force
Chinese philosophy promoted by Laozi based on harmony and balance in and with nature
Five Classics
set of literature written during the early part of the Zhou dynasty including political materials, discussion of etiquette and ceremonies, and poetry
Chinese Classical Social Hierarchy
SPAM- Scholars, Peasants, Artisans, "Mean People"
Filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Silk Road
network of caravan trade routes throughout China
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Vedic and Epic Ages
Several centuries between the destruction of the Indus River civilization and the revival of full civilization elsewhere on the subcontinent; Also called the formative period, in which Indo-European migrants gradually came to terms with agriculture, but had their own impact on the culture and social structure of their new home.
commentaries on the Vedas that are considered sacred texts in the Hindu religion
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society, used in India brought by the Aryans
KBVSU: Kshatriyas (warrior/governing class), Brahmins (priests), Vaisyas (traders and farmers), Sudras (common laborers), Untouchables (filth group)
Mauryan Dynasty
dynasty founded in India by a soldier named Chadragupta in 322 B.C.E. that had a large army, large bureaucracy, promoted trade and communication, and are known for unifying India. `
(269-232 B.C.E.) most prominent Mauryan ruler, unified almost all of India, tried to mix Buddhism and Hinduism, and connected the subcontinent to the Silk Road
Gupta Dynasty
Indian Hindu dynasty that reinforced the caste system and decentralized the government
belief system from India from the literature, traditions and class system (caste system) of the Aryan invaders. priests=Brahmins, polytheistic religion with a belief in reincarnation based on a person's good karma, by following the moral law of dharma, in order to achieve unificaion with the soul of Brahma (moshka)
Vishnu and Shiva
the two most important deities in the Hindu religion
Bhagavad Gita
Short poem that illustrates the expectations Hinduism made for individuals and the promise of salvation that it held out to them; Self-contained Mahabharata; Dialogue between Arjuna(kshatriya warrior going into battle) and Krishna(human incarnation of Vishnu)
belief system from India founded by prince Guatama (the Buddha) in 53 BCE, based on self control and equal treatment for all, in order to reach nirvana
Classical Indian Literature
Vedic and Epics
religious buildings that originally housed Buddha relics. Stupas developed into familiar Buddhist architecture
Persian Empire
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Peloponnesian Wars
a war fought between Athens and Sparta in the 400s BC, ending in a victory for Sparta
Alexander the Great
king of Mcedonia who conquered Geece, Persia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; his conquests spread Greek culture throughout parts of 3 continents
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
stated in Athens
senate and consuls
made by Patricians. were the highest branch of government
roman law
this Roman contribution delt mostly with the rights of Roman citizens; one belief was that it should be fair and equal to all people
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
the quality of being consistent with or based on logic
one of the great tragedians of ancient Greece (496-406 BC)
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
From about 500 BC to 150 AD this Nubian empire in North Africa controlled a large trade netowrk, including Egypt
a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa
silk road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma, focusing on nature and ancestor worship
a member of an early Mesoamerican civilization centered around Veracruz that flourished between 1300 and 400 BC
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600. (p. 300)
the most widely spoken of modern Indic vernaculars
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
byzantine empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395
sassanid empire
the name of the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire. It was one of the two main powers in Western Asia for a period of more than 400 years.[1] The Sassanid dynasty was founded by Ardashir I after defeating the last Parthian (Arsacid) king, in Persia
coptic church
the ancient Christian church of Egypt
the union (or attempted fusion) of different systems of thought or belief (especially in religion or philosophy)
belief that all Buddhists, no matter what level of society they are from can reach nirvana
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
a member of a nomadic tribe of Arabs
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
holy community, all who worship, the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
the Muslim messiah, an expected spiritual and temporal ruler destined to establish a reign of righteousness throughout the world. al-Mahdi was a caliph
harun al-rashid
caliph after al-Mahdi that split the empire between his two sons when he died
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
persian buyids
dynasty that took control of the abbasid caliphate in the 930s
seljuk turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
A Kurdish general who conquered Egypt and Syria in the twelfth century. His capture of Jerusalem precipitated a crusade. He became legendary for his military genius and generosity.
ibn khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam's sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
Islamic mysticism
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.
"arabic numerals"
numerals we use today, originally from India
sultanate of delhi
Unstable kingdom in North India founded by the Ghaznavids. This invasion was more systematic than Mahmud's and after it succedded, the capital was established at Delhi. Raided south India. 19 of 35 sultans were assasinated. Established Islam in India. No military or bureaucracy.
Indian tradition of widows being burned on their husbands funeral pyres
bhaktic cults
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Vishnu and Shiva
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall in 13th century opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka. (p. 387)
stateless societies
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
bantu migration
the movement of the bantu peoples southward throghout africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
The spread of Islamic faith across Middle East, Asia, and Northern Africa
only African kingdom that stayed Christian
sudanic states
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power, from the Senegal river to the Niger River. The states were ruled by a patriarch or council of elders. There was a core territorial area and then surrounding subordinate ones. The rulers of sudanic states were considered sacred and separate from their subjects. when islam spread to this area, only Royals practiced it and it was not spread to the people.
mansa musa
this Islamic Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning (388
A Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the east african coast
Kingdom of Kongo
African kingdom based on agriculture formed on the lower Congo River by late 15th century, capital at Mbanza Kongo, ruled by hereditary monarchy
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, developed after 9th century, featured royal courts built of stone, created centralized state by 15th century, king took title of Mwene Mutapa
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered from Persia much of the territory previously ruled by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Empress Theodora
-, wife of Emperor Justinian I, convinced him to put down a rebellion in 532 A.D.
Byzantine bureaucracy
complex bureaucracy trained in Greek classics, philosophy, and science in a secular school system, talent based bureaucracy
paintings of saints and religious figures
the Great Schism
1054, split between western and eastern Christianity to make eastern orthodox and catholicism
the battle of mazikert
1071m byzantine emperor lost this battle to the Islamic Seljuk Turks, sealing the Byzantine empire's doom
fall of constantinople
1453, Turks attacked the city,it was in Turk control by 1461
slavic alphabet
russian orthodox church
eastern christianity
slavic peoples
kievan rus
city set up by scandinavian traders in 855 ce
vladimir 1
prince in kievan rus from 980-1015 who forced christianity on his people, starting the russian orthodox church
russian aristocrats
Mongol invaders into russia
"third rome"
what russia was trying to be
"middle ages"
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
seagoing scandinavian invaders who disrupted european life
the system of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers in Europe, where most people were serfs
Centers of religious learning in the early Middle Ages, most important set of monastic rules from Benedict of Nursia
around 800, carolingian ruler who established a substantial empire in france and germany
the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th C in which nobles offered protection and land in return for service
william the conqueror
the duke of normandy in 1066 who invaded England and created a kingdom using feudal principles with a slightly more centralized approach
magna carta
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Pope Gregory VII
(r. 1073-1085) Figure behind investiture contreversy, battles with Henry IV, Dictatus Papai- "papal wishlist"
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
gothic style
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs
chaucer's canterbury tales
poetry written in vernacular tongues
began by Italian businesspeople to facilitate the long-distance exchange of money and goods
hanseatic league
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century. (p. 401)
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
black death
bubonic plague, 1348
term to describe native americans derived from christopher columbus' mistake when he thought he had reached the Indes, but instead had reached america
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p.236)
toltec leader and preist dedicated to the god quetzalcoatl whose legend gives the story of the toltecs
(1200-1521) 1325, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region- had a social contract in which subject peoples were forced to pay tribute, surrender lands and do military service in order to survive. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
aztec capital
"flower wars"
territories were left unconquered in order to stage wars in which both sides could obtain captives for sacrifice
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
Aztec merchants. Extremely wealthy. Had a huge quantity of material goods etc. But explicitly forbidden to take part in political hierarchy so as not to throw off the balance of power.
Clans in Aztec society, later explanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors to leaders
bernardino de sahagun
Spanish missionary to Aztecs of Mexico, "Florentine Codex", wrote encyclopedia "Father of modern ethnography" (study of culture)
In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler, Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
temple of the sun
temple and center of the state religion in cuzco where mummies were kept
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
incan system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records