stateless societies
term realating to societies such as those of sub saharan africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized rule.
founder of the Mali empire (r 1230-1255) also the inspiration of Sundiata, the african literary and mythological work. he won gold control.
west african kingdom founded in the 13th century by Sundiata; it reached its peak under Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa
Sundiata's grand nephew who ruled Mali from 1312-1337 during its high point. he observed Islamic traditions and made a pilgrimmage to Mecca
east African city state that dominated the coast and was active in trade
Swahili city states
port cities in convienient locations in east Africa (malindi, mosambique, Zanzibar, Lamu etc) they were goverened by a king who supervised trade and organized public life
kingdom of Kongo
central African state that began trading with Portugese
Kingdom in West Africa during the 5th - 13th centuries whose rulers eventually converted to Islam. power and wealth of this kingdom were based on dominating trans-saharan trade
islamic judges
"dwelling of a chief" complex stone structures
the great zimbabwe
maginificent stone complex near modern day zimbabwe
Ibn Battuta
moroccan traveler who visted many west african places and recorded and reported what he saw. he was offended by the lack of modesty in the area he went to
legal scholar
black slaves from swahili coast; they labored under awful conditions
the zanj revolt
led by Ali bin Muhammad in 869, thousands of zanj slaves revolted and captured Basra, the most important city in mesopotamia. demonstrated that african slavery was so porminent in Muslim society
religious belief that natural things (trees, rivers, rocks) and animals have spirtual essence
intelligent people who had innate abilities to meditate between human and supernatural worlds and ask gods for help with questions or problems
a city and kingdom in northern ethiopia that was a major naval trading power
kebra negast
"the glory of the kings" an acount written about the line of rulers descending from king soloman and david
oracle stroytellers
Native religions of sub-Saharan Africa
-pagans w/ diviners (Kongo, smaller societies) -Islam (from north Africa- Ghana, Zimbabwe)
Gender relations in sub-Saharan Africa
-high honor b/c they were sources of life -could have limited jobs (making pottery, trading, planting and harvesting crops) - domestic work
How did Islam help facilitate trade in Africa?
- improved relations and cooperation with Muslims in northern Africa
Mansa Musa- influence on Mali?
-grand nephew of Sundiata (founder of Mali) -ruler of Mali during high point -wealthiest king in the world (gold) -promoted Islam - created strong centralized govt that outlived the Mali Empire
Bantu political structure
stateless society
Stateless society
-Bantu political structure -NO hierarchy/ govt officials -male heads of families formed councils and kinship groups
How did Mali become wealthy?
-taxes on trade
What helped establish sub-Saharan trade routes?
-camels -Islam
What were the Swahili city states? What were they heavily involved in?
- east African coast - Mogadishu, Lamu, Malindi, Momvasa, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mozambique, Sofala - TRADE!!
The remarkable oral tradition of sub-Saharan Africa was preserved primarily by
professional singers and griots
The story of Sundiata was about
the heroic deeds of the lion prince in establishing the Mali empire
Trade and communications networks were slower to penetrate sub-Saharan Africa compared to other regions because
there was formidable geographic barriers to overcome (Sahara desert)
The earliest Bantu migrants were
The kingdom of Kongo maintained a royal currency system based on
cowries from the Indian Ocean
The arrival of camels in Africa
quickened the pace of communication across the Sahara
Koumbi-Saleh was to the kingdom of Ghana as
Niani was to the Mali Empire
Swahili refers to the peoples of
the east African coast.
Great Zimbabwe was
a capital city built of stone
After the eleventh century, the slave trade became increasingly important in Africa because
demand for slaves in foreign markets outstripped the supply
Unlike many other religions, African religion did not concern itself with matters of