Paleolithic Age (2)
Refers to about 12,000 B.C. People were nomadic
Nomads (2)
Sole focus was to satisfy basic needs of food and shelter Developed spoken language, simple tools from stone, controlled fire
Foraging Societies (3)
Hunters and Gatherers Traveled based on climate and availability of plants and animals Limited by surroundings and incapability of long term storage
Pastoral Societies (4)
Domestication of animals Formed in mountainous areas and places with insufficient rainfall extended family major institution society more egalitarian & ranking based on size of one's herd
Neolithic Revolution (2)
12,000 BC to 8,000 BC Transition from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles
River Valley Civilizations
3500 BC to 1500 BC
Common Characteristics of River Valley Civilizations (6)
Complex irrigation systems Legal codes Money Art and written literature More formal knowledge on science, numbering systems and calendars Intensification of social inequality
Classical Civilizations
1000 BC to 600 CE
Common Characteristics of Classical Civilizations (4)
Patriarchal family structures Agricultural based economies Complex governments Expanding trade base
Important Trade Routes (4)
Silk Road Indian Ocean Trade Network Saharan Trade Sub-Saharan Trade
Silk Road (4)
Western China to Central Asia to Mediterranean area Chinese silk most desired commodity Series of passages w/ common stops No single merchant traveled the entire road
Indian Ocean Trade Network (5)
Active during classical era from 1000 BC to 600 CE Three legs 1. Connected Eastern Africa and Middle East with India 2. Connected India with southeast Asia 3. Connected Southeast Asia to Chinese port of Canton
Saharan Trade (3)
Connected people from south of Sahara to Mediterranean and Middle East Berbers, (nomads who traveled the desert) were most important agents Cairo was at the mouth of the Nile and deemed the most important destination because it linked many civilizations together
Sub-Saharan Trade (3)
Inspired by Bantu Migration By the end of classical era, South Sahara connected to Eastern and Southern parts of Africa Connected to Indian Ocean along East Coast of Africa
Decline of River Valley Civilizations
1200 BCE
Decline of Classical Civilizations (4)
200 to 600 CE Han China in 220 Western Roman Empire in 476 Gupta in 550
Similarities in Decline of Classical Civilizations (3)
Attacks from Huns - nomadic people of Asia that began migrating south and west Whenever a civilization became powerful and prosperous, it attracted envy outsiders and neighbors Often times, wealthy civilizations is far too big to protect all borders
Differences in the Decline of Classical Civilizations
Gupta's dependence on alliances with regional princes broke down Roman Empire split in 2 and eastern half endured for another thousand years
Common Consequences
Trade was disrupted Importance of religion increased as political authority decreased Political disunity in Middle East allowed Islam to emerge by 600 CE
Bantu Migrations (Date? Who? Where? What did they carry with them?)
Beginning around 1500 BCE Niger and Benue River valley farmers began migrating south and east Carried knowledge of language, agriculture and metallurgy
Olmec Civilization (Date? Where? Important Symbol? Advancements?)
1500 to 400 BCE Mexico Mastered irrigation techniques Developed system of writing and calendar Jaguar symbol important
Chavin Civilization (Date? Where/Geography? Advancements? Animal?)
900 to 200 BCE Andean Region Unique geography of having access to coast Developed ways to use metals in tools and weapons Llamas were their beasts of burden
Mayan Civilization (Date? Where? Rituals? Labor? Advancements?)
300 BCE to 800 BCE Southern Mexico and parts of Central America Sacrifices No large animals so humans were main source of labor Mayan Calendar based on a number system with 0 was fairly accurate
Mauryan Empire
321 to 180 BCE India- Indus River Valley eastward through Ganges River Valley Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka Maurya