pre-history vs. history
features of civilization
Paleolithic Era
called the old stone age (from 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago); they were concerned with food supply; they used stone as well as bone tools; they were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Neolithic Era
the last period of the stone age when human beings began to develop agriculture, and use tools and weapons made from shaped and polished stone
Family unit, clans, tribes
foraging societies
Also known as hunting and gathering societies, are societies in which people acquire their subsistence from the resources around them, without cultivating the earth.
nomadic hunter/gathers
A group of people who have no permanent home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and land.
Ice Age
The historic period in history of widespread glaciation, during which glaciers spread over about a third of the earth's land area
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
Domestication of plants and animals
the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans
nomadic pastoralism
slash and burn; once land has been depleted, move on to let soil recover
migratory farmers
Farmers that migrate instead of settling after using up the land.
a unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the male line
move in with husband's family
irrigation systems
methods to supply water to farmland in areas with insufficient rainfall
metal working
4000 B.C , first metal was copper, 3000 BC- commonplace, useful to agriculture and herding, found in middle east
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
The seeking and obtaining of food.
sedentary agriculture
Planting seeds and harvesting them regularly. Began in the Neolithic.
slash-and-burn agriculture
System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time.
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
independant invention
The creation of technology or culture without influence from outside groups.
Focusing work effort on a particular product or a single task
Focusing work effort on a particular product or a single task
gender divsion of labor
the science, technology and arts of metals
Fertile Cresent
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land strecheding from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
City States
a city and its surrounding farmlands, with its own leaders and government
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
Hammurabi's Law Code
based on Sumerian law, the Code of Hammurabi allowed all people to see the laws of the empire. Worked on the basis of "an eye for an eye" and covered all aspects of society.
Later Mesopetamian Empires
Babylonian Empire
Empire in Mesopotamia which was formed by Hammurabi, the sixth ruler of the invading Amorites
Babylonian king who took captives from Judah
Patricarchal society
society in which men exercise the authority
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
country in North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea
the title of the ancient Egyptian kings
Egyptian Book of the Dead
a collection of up to 200 spells placed with the mummy to help the deceased reach the other world safely
River in Egypt; gave life to the Egyptian desert; Biannual flooding; longest river in the world (Over 4000 Mi. long) Had cataracts or rapids; provided fertile soil
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
a process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying
ancient Egyptian writing system using picture symbols for ideas or sounds
Old Kingdom
the period from about 2700 to 2200 BC in Egyptian history that began shortly after Egypt was unified. Age of the pyramids.
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
New Kingdom
the period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
The people in Eastern Africa south of Egypt who were rivals of the ancient Egyptians and known for their flourishing kingdom between the 400s BC and the 400s CE. They speak their own language and were known by the Egyptians for their darker skin.
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because loess soil is not compacted, easily worked.
3 ancient dynasties - characteristics
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Veneration of Ancestors
the extension of filial piety to include care for the deceased, for instance by burning replicas of useful objects to accompany them on their journey to the next world
Bronze Vessels
Chinese Shang and Zhou dynasty bronze artifacts discovered by archaeologist; used for religious rituals.
Oracle Bones
animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions for the gods
Early writing
Origins of writing in ritual communication between the king and the gods and ancestors
Indo-Europeans who settled in highlands of Anatolia in 2000 BC, first Indo-Europeans to make use of iron
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire.
Pelponnesian War
war that broke out when tension between Athens and Sparta grew.
the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Ancient Athenian philosopher teacher of Plato and Xenophon (470-399 BC)
ancient Athenian philosopher, pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle (428-347 BC)
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers, pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great (384-322 BC)
Western Scientific thought
scientific method, basis for modern science
Early China
Xia, Shang, Zhou,Qin, Han dynasties,Warring States Period
Hwang He
yellow river; middle kingdom, they were the center of the earth; dynasty - the ruling family; taoism ying yang
Qin Dynasty
established in 221 BCE at the end of the Warring States Period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; founded by Qin Shi Huangdi; reorganized China into large provinces; developed strong military; Great Wall building began; census introduced; one standard written language.
Classical China
Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi.
First Emperor of China
Shi Huang di
First Emperor of China's tomb
Han Dynasty
new dynasty after the Period of the Warring States. Liu Bang created the new dynasty and named in such in honor of his native land. Turned out to be one of the longest and most influential dynasties in all of Chinese history. Lasted for more than 400 years. Sometimes divided into Former (206 BCE to 9 CE) and Later (25-220 CE). followed a middle path between the decentralized network of political alliances of the Zhou, and the tightly centralized state of the Qin. A huge reason for this dynasty's success was the long reign of Han Wudi, who increased authority and the prestige of the central government.
Han Dynasty Policies
Emperior Wudi and 2 main policies
Educational System
Nomadic Threats
Land Distribution
dividing large tracts of land between the peasants
Silk Roads
a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Technological Advances
India Mauryan Dynasty - Rise and Fall
Trade Routes of above
Asoka's policies
Hindu general who became king of India
Gupta - Rise and Fall
social groups into which people are born and cannot change
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
conquered crete, skilled sailor, established colonies/city, learned building from minoans, adapted writing, took over trade routes
Minoans and Mycenaen contributions to Greek
Important Greek Polies
Greek city-states
Greek trade
Wars with Persia
Age of Pericles
Athens's Golden Age- city blossomed under Pericles leadership,athens became a centerpiece of art, philosophy, & democracy
Athenian Republic
Golden Mean
Aristotle's term for describing ethical behavior as a midpoint between extremes
one of the great tragedians of ancient Greece (496-406 BC)
Macedon and Phillip
Alexander and his conquests
tutored by Aristotle, he became one of history's most successful generals. His conquests included lands like Egypt and the Persian Empire.
Hellenistic Era
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world
Etruscan contribution to Rome
Julius Caesar
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power