Axial Age
The time period after 600 BCE where major religions and philosophies addressed questions and concerns that were not sufficiently answered with the previous traditions. These questions/concerns represented the core ideas around which a society revolves.
Chinese belief system from 500s BCE that emphasized family loyalty, respecting elders, education, obedience, and ancestors.
Chinese religion from 500s BCE that emphasized following the mystical and indescribable "Way." It celebrated the chaos and contradictions of reality as well as the harmony of nature. The Yin and Yang symbolizes many aspects of this religion.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
Qin Shihuangdi
(r.221-210 BCE) The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty who believed strongly in Legalism and sought to strengthen the centralized China through public works.
Mandate of Heaven
The Chinese belief that the emperor claimed to be the "son of heaven" and therefore has the right to rule.
Athenian Democracy
Anthenians built limited democracy. Had city states. Citizens were adult male residents who enjoyed certain rights and responsibilities. Cleisthenes made further reforms; worked to make Athens a full democracy by balancing power between rich and poor, created council of 500
The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.
The common people during the Roman era.
Julius Caesar
During a civil war the Roman Senate allowed him to become a dictator but he refused to give it up and the senate eventually killed him. But his name came to mean "emperor".
Leader of the Mauryan dynasty of India who conquered most of India but eventually gave up violence and converted to Buddhism.
Silk Roads
A system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
Siddhartha Guatama
The founder of the religion Buddhism who believed that all life was suffering. Also known as the Buddha.
Hellenistic Era
Of or influenced by the Greek Empire. A type of culture typically referred to after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Persian Empire
Persian Empire
Greatest empire in the world up to 500 BCE. Spoke an Indo-European language. A multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire. Fell to Alexander the Great.
Pax Romana
A time in history when the Roman Empire was at peace and promoted safe trade.
Caesar Augustus
He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.
Jesus of Nazareth
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel. A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God.
Edict of Milan
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was a letter signed by emperors Constantine I and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued in AD 313, shortly after the conclusion of the Diocletianic Persecution.
Greek word for "city-state"
Peloponnesian Wars
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Philosophy that celebrates human cultural achievements and emphasizes human reason and ethics.
Alexander the Great
He and his father defeated and united the weakened Greek city-states and he defeated the Persian Empire in 330 BCE thus spreading Greek culture and influence throughout Western Asia. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Egypt, and Persia
The unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.
Caste System
The system in old India that separated the people into social categories, but based mostly on color with the Aryans always on the top of the social pyramid.
Describe the conditions and context that allowed Rome to grow from a single city to the center of a huge empire.
The conditions and context that allowed Rome to grow from a single city to the center of a huge empire was the location of the city (good resources and connections), the political system of the Roman Republic and Senate, the different people and the skills they could provide. All of these led to the development and success of the Roman Empire.
What were the most significant technological developments during this the Han period?
craftsmen began to began to fashion fibers made out of hemp , bark, and textile fibers to create the first form of paper. Artisans decided to utilize iron as their main metal. This caused them to create sharp agricultural tools,swords, and even the first forms of iron armor used to protect soldiers. caused the early Han to create powerful armies due to the techniques that still inspire most metal workers today. The last major innovation the early chinese made was silk. Silk as made rapidly due to their raising of silk worms. The silk then became a prized commodity throughout the world such as india and persia, inspiring the creation of the silk road
How did the issue of uneven distribution of wealth contribute to the collapse of the Han? Of Rome?
The distribution of wealth made different social classes in Han, wealthy landowners, and poor people who owned no land. The wealthier people who owned large amounts of land did not cooperate with government on issues about their land. The emperors were relying on the wealthy landowners. There also were many social tensions between the two classes. In Rome, similarly the two classes had many social tensions, which often caused revolts from the lower classes, due to the way they were treated.
What are similarities and differences in Roman and Chinese political administration, role of emperor, economic systems, treatment of conquered peoples, and methods of political control?
ECONOMY Both had economies of small freeholders who tilled their own land where many peasants lost their farm and became tenant farmers China's main export was silk while Rome was olives and wine Both participated in trade POLITICAL CONTROL Rome had more of a hard and tough power while China was more soft and less aggressive TREATMENT OF CONQUERED PEOPLES Both china and rome treated the people they conquered poorly
Compare and contrast the collapse of the Han Empire with the collapse of the Roman Empire.
Both empires equally strived economically in trade, but slow decline of trade affected Rome more than China, as Rome depended heavily on foreign, which gradually broke down, while China's economy was more community based. Nonetheless, less trade in both empires then increased taxes upon the people, mostly paid by the lower classes. Social unrest also played a role in the downfall of both empires, lower classes becoming infuriated as a result of taxes being raised and all the burden falling on them. Nomadic invasions also greatly affected both empires, both suffering attacks from neighboring tribes and small cities.
How did Christianity and Buddhism respond to questions or problems in the societies from whence they came? Compare and contrast the growth and spread of Christianity and Buddhism.
The spread of Christianity occurred Through missionaries, merchants, and later through Roman imperial support during the time of Constantine. The spread of Buddhism happened by Emperor Ashoka of Maurya helped support and spread it, then spread through missionaries and merchants and educational institutes that taught its core beliefs.
What developments in the classical era helped reduce the risks inherent in long-distance trade?
The building of imperial states (so big that they bordered on one another) along trade routes helped reduce the risk merchants inherent in long distance trade
Periodization: Why 600 BC- 600 CE?
This period lasts from 600 BC- 600 CE because it starts forming the major world history we are familiar with today and how it shapes our world today. This period organizes human society. Well known religions like Buddhism and Christianity were founded during this period along with very strong civilizations like the Roman Empire. The period stops here because right after 600 CE is when transregional relations begin by trading goods with other countries and the spread of ideas.