Huang He: Social
Emphasis on patriarchy and family (ancestral respect); highly stratified social ranking based on occupation.
Huang He: Political
Government formed to combat nomadic invaders/manage intricate irrigation system; Nomadic warrior kings who controlled through vassals who collected tribute. King had "mandate of heaven".
Huang He: Interaction with Environment
Isolated by Himalayas and Gobi Desert, dependence on irrigation because of soil as cause for government creation, unpredictable flooding impacts social and cultural practices.
Huang He: Cultural
Emphasis on ancestry; oracle bones deciphered through shamans, use of pictographs (literacy).
Huang He: Economic
Agriculture and metallurgy, silk, the how, trade with Mesopotamia brings bronze.
Mesopotamia: Social
Patriarchy & distinct social classes (slavery).
Mesopotamia: Political
City-states ruled by kings that were constantly in control, used religion to justify/strengthen power.
Mesopotamia: Interaction with environment
Tigris & Euphrates Rivers were unpredictable--influenced religion; used clay for buildings, record keeping.
Mesopotamia: Cultural
Polytheistic, gods embodied nature; Ziggurats (temples); Cuneiform (writing system).
Mesopotamia: Economic
Trade increased with conquests; traded with societies in south/Central Asia.
Indus River Valley (Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro): Social
Little known--House size differences indicate social hierarchy; evidence of powerful priest class. Extensive job specialization.
Indus River Valley: Political
Little known--organized, wide road system suggests government plans; fortifications and granaries suggest government control.
Indus River Valley: interaction with environment
Excessive irrigation that led to increasing salinity of soil. Deforestation and soil erosion.
Indus River Valley: Culture
Priests very powerful, polytheistic; mother goddess important; writing system.
Indus River Valley: Economics
Supported by advanced agricultural system of wheat, rye, peas, rice. Major trading centers between China, southeast Asia, Mesopotamia. Job specialization.
Nile Valley (Egypt): Social
Patriarchy; less stratified than Mesopotamia, but king had total power, social mobility possible; limited slavery.
Nile Valley (Egypt): Political
Pharaoh not just king but a god, ruled through loyal regional officials who managed regional irrigation/public works, king kept tight/centralized power.
Nile Valley (Egypt): Interaction with environment
Mostly isolated from trade and invasion. Predictable flooding cause belief that they could control destiny.
Nile Valley (Egypt): Cultural
Polytheistic, chief deities connected to agriculture; very concerned with death preparation and afterlife, rituals of mummification and funerals.
Nile Valley (Egypt): Economic
Most were farmers, wheels and bronze arrive from extensive trade with Mesopotamia.
Andean (Norte Chico): Social
Gold adornments and superior textiles to show social class; skilled labor class.
Andean (Norte Chico): Political
Little known--Evidence of early organized warfare; large areas of diffusion suggests political organization.
Andean (Norte Chico): Interaction with the environment
Non-river valley; diverse environment--little rainfall, mountainous, thick jungles.
Andean (Norte Chico): Cultural
Most unknown--Jaguar God prominent.
Andean (Norte Chico): Economic
Based on agriculture--maize from Mesoamerica, domestication of animals.