Ivan III
also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols (a.k.a. Tatars) after 1462; took title of tsar (czar), or Caesar- equivalent of emperor
third Rome
Russian claim to be successor state to Roman and Byzantine empires; based in part on continuitiy of Orthodox church in Russia following fall of Constantinople in 1453
Ivan IV
also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western Europe commerce and trade
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquest; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) without heir early in 17th century; lasted from 1604-1613, when a new tsar was finally selected; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar (czar) in 1613, which was the start of the Romanov dynasty, that would rule Russia until the great revolution of 1917
Romanov dynasty
dynasty elected in 1613 at end of Time of Troubles; ruled Russia until 1917
Alexis Romanov
second Romanov tsar; (Michael Romanov was the first Romanov tsar) son of Michael Romanov; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church
Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization
Peter I
also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; 6 foot 8 inches tall; ruled from 1689 to his death in 1725; continued growth of absolution and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through initiation of western European models
St. Petersburg
the tsar Peter I (Peter the Great) moved the capital from Moscow to this Baltic city, St. Petersburg; Peter I "commemorated Russia's shift of interests westward by moving his capital from Moscow to a new Baltic city that he named St. Petersburg"
Catherine the Great
also known as Catherine II; German born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry
Pugachev rebellion
during 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter
a noble; one of first Western inspired radicals; sought abolition of serfdom and more liberal political rule; vigorously harassed by Catherine the Great's police; his writings were banned
partition of Poland
division of Poland among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe; significant because before this, Poland was one of the largest nation-states in eastern Europe apart from Russia