Sparse, dry, treeless grassland
Capitol of mediaeval Russia and of present day Ukraine
Relating to the Slavic alphabet derived from the Greek and traditionally attributed to St. Cyril; in modified form still used in modern Slavic languages
Ivan the Great
Formerly known as Ivan III, he ruled from 1462-1505 and recovered much land that Russia had lost
Title of the ruler of the Russian empire
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the IV, grandson of Ivan the great. He was a harsh ruler who was crowned tsar at age 17. Prone to violence, he often killed people who he considered disloyal and left the land seething with rebellion after he died
Golden Horde
The Mongol armies that invaded Europe in 1237 and ruled Russia for over 2 centuries
How did geography affect Russian settlement and Growth?
With Kiev as the center of the state, its growth came from a mixing of the Vikings and Slavs
Why did Kiev become an important city?
It became the Capitol and it brought together a group of people before it was burned down
Describe mongol rule of Russia?
Mongols set a model for Russian rulers. A lot of power went to the princes who were looking for absolute power. It also set them apart from Western Europe
How did geography and the migrations of different peoples influence the rise of russia?
The rise of Russia first started when the Vikings came. Their prince, Rurik gave Russia the capitol of Kiev after the Rus started growing. The Mongols destroyed the capitol of Kiev and other areas, but still let Russian princes rule. While the Mongols were still in control, Moscow had become important because of trades and tributes. Soon, it became the new capitol. Ivan the Great got land back from Lithuania. By the time Ivan the Terrible came to rule, they were under more Byzantine influence and decreasing power of the boyars
How did Russia's geography affect its early history?
They had three zones, which were very different. From the northern area which gave them lumber to what is now present day Ukraine and the grasslands of the south
How important was Byzantine influence on Russia?
Byzantine influence has been very important on Russia since the beginning. After the fall of Rome, they turned to them rather than Western Europe. Eventually, Ivan the Great married into Byzantine family and adopted much of their culture
How did Mongol rule influence Russia's economy and political structure?
After the Mongols burned much of their land, Russia was still able to have some control. They still had princes that ruled and tolerated their Orthodox church
Having unlimited power
Landowning noble in Russia under the tsars
How did government and the economy under Lenin differ from "pure" communism?
Lenin's form of government still gave people the right to vote on political issues through the newly developed Soviet Union. It also had a New Economic Plan. This allowed privately owned businesses to make money and for peasants to still keep some of their crops. Lenin still thought this was just a detour from real communism
Use your completed timeline to answer the Focus Question: How did two revolutions and a civil war bring about Communist control of Russia?
Each revolution brought more power to the Communist. Russians were losing trust in their Tsar after peasants started starving and his only concern being on war. Once the Tsar stepped down it gave Lenin the chance to grow his party. Through their ideas of blending works and peasants they defeated the White army and became the Soviet Union
What were the causes of the March revolution?
The economy was terrible, people were starving, and even the army did not want to shoot for the Tsar
How did Lenin adapt Marxism to conditions in Russia?
Lenin wanted a working class that would eventually take over the government. However, the working class was not strong enough in Russia for this plan to work at the time. So instead, he wanted a group of Socialists who would lead the working class so they could get to this point. However, with his rising power Lenin's conditions went from having a working class that had to give everything to the Soviet Union under their communist control until the New Economic Plan came around
What were the causes and effects of the civil war in Russia?
First, the government after the Tsar stepped down was much disorganized. The socialists wanted to spread their ideas and control Russia. They turned to the working class and peasants for support. This made it easy for the Red army to win the civil war and take over Russia which led to a strong Communist party under Lenin
Why did Lenin compromise between the ideas of capitalism and communism in creating the NEP?
Lenin wanted to make a greater economy for Russia through the working class. This new policy allowed for that and took the nation's economy back to the way it was before the war and made for happier Russian citizens
Command Economy
System in which government officials make all basic economic decisions
Large farm owned and operated by peasants as a group
Wealthy peasant in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
In the Soviet Union, a system of forced labor camps in which millions of criminals and political prisoners were held under Stalin
Socialist Realism
Artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
Making a nationality's culture more ethnically Russian
Belief that there is no god
Communist international, international association of communist parties led by the Soviet Union for the purpose of encouraging worldwide communist revolution
How did Stalin take control of the Soviet Union's economic life?
Stalin used the government to control the economy. Using their system, he took over business and distribution as well as other aspects of their command economy.
In what ways did Stalin's terror tactics harm the Soviet Union?
By terrorizing his own people, Stalin hurt his nation. He violated their privacy and frightened them with his violent attacks by police and other forces. These tactics may have increased his power but they killed many people and hurt the country
How did Stalin use censorship and propaganda to support his rule?
Using new media such as movies and radio, Stalin marketed himself using propaganda. It was also a way to show people the evils of capitalism. While his censorship was used so that no one would speak badly of him. Many authors and other writers were forbidden to write stories against Stalin if they were negative despite the work they put into them
How did Communist schools benefit the state and the Communist party?
When attending school under Communist rule, the state was able to build more housing plans for people even though most families were still living in harsh conditions. It also made the Communist party look better by providing citizens with new activities and opportunities
How did the Soviet Union's foreign policy goals contradict one another?
The Soviet's still wanted Marx and Lenin's ideal revolution while they still wanted other countries support for security purposes
How did Stalin turn the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state?
First, he took over the nation's economy with his Five Year Plan. His bureaucracy had control in the new totalitarian state
What were the goals and results of Stalin's Five Year Plan? How did the effects differ between industry and agriculture?
Stalin wanted improve things like industry, and farm output. To help make for heavy industry he provided those who did well with bonuses and punished those who didn't. Even though industry rose, the standard of living wasn't good. Stalin wanted workers in the city to have food from farmers so he pushed agriculture. He moved peasants to collectives which caused problems. Many peasants revolted against Stalin because of this
How did the economy under Stalin differ from a capitalist economy?
In his command economy, Stalin's government had control over all basic economic decisions while the market is in control of the capitalist system
What methods did Stalin use to create a totalitarian state?
Stalin used terror tactics to achieve many goals in his totalitarian state. He also used his government to control many aspects of the nation
One historian has said that socialist realism was "Communism with a smiling face" what do you think he meant?
I think he meant that Social Realism was just a form of propaganda. The Soviets used this method to promote Communism by showing the positive aspects of their party
Compare life under Stalin's rule with life under Russian tsars.
Life under Stalin was similar to rule under Russian tsars because he had total control and used terror tactics on his people
A nation stronger than other powerful nations
Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM)
Missiles that can shoot down other missiles
Ronald Reagan
United States President during the 1980s that launched a program to build a "Star Wars" missile defense against nuclear attack
The relaxation of the Cold War tensions during the 1970s
Fidel Castro
Organized an armed rebellion against the corrupt dictator who ruled Cuba
John F. Kennedy
United states president who supported an invasion attempt by US trained Cuban exiles
System of thought and belief
Nikita Khrushchev
Became Soviet's leader after the death of Stalin
Leonid Brezhnev
Khrushchev's successor who until 1982
The US strategy of keeping communism within its existing boundaries and preventing its further expansion
How was Europe divided, and what were three consequences of its division?
Europe was divided by NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Western Europe supported NATO and was democratic while the East was led by the Soviet Union's communist party by the Warsaw Pact. This division led to the split of Germany with its East and West. Many citizens became unhappy with conditions in East Germany and tried to flee to the west. This led to a wall being put up by to keep citizens under communist rule. Also, there were many revolts in Eastern countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. All of which led to the Soviet's interference and attacks. The Soviet's were so determined to grow Communism that they assaulted Hungary and executed their leader after he threatened to pull his country out of the Warsaw Pact
What factors discouraged the use of nuclear weapons
Fear of nuclear annihilation was a fear from both sides. They were both looking to halt each other's progression of the bombs. Through disbarment talks and treaties, they were able to get to a point where they could both live in a relaxed state until 1979. In other countries the NPT stop the spread of nuclear war
How did the US and the Soviet Union confront each other around the world during the Cold War?
Both superpowers formed alliances with other nations to confront each other. The United States put bases all over the world and signed treaty organizations such as SEATO and CENTO while the Soviets aligned with African and Asian nations
How did the Soviet Government handle critics of its policies?
Brezhnev punished and imprisoned critics. They silenced a scientist who spoke out and arrested a man just for criticizing Stalin in a letter and was eventually executed. This resistance still continued because of these men who spoke out
How did America respond to the threat of communism at home and overseas?
In the United States, many feared nuclear attack and prepared for an invasion at home and at schools. Also, McCarthyism came about and many people were accused of being Communist. To prevent the spread of communism they used containment and supported counties that were facing rebellion from the Soviets
What were the military and political consequences of the Cold War in the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States?
When the United States set up bases all over globe, the Soviets suffered the consequences. European troops were harmed as well when the Soviets interfered in Germany, Poland, Hungary, and other nation's rebellions. Then, at the Bay of Pigs Invasion, United States invaders were captured by the Cubans
What kinds of conflicts resulted from the global confrontation between the two superpowers?
Even after forming alliances with African and Asian nations, they still wanted independence from the Soviets. The United States also had conflicts with Cuba with ended in a trade embargo that still exists today
How did the buildup of nuclear weapons discourage their use?
Both countries developing the weapons feared destruction of their own nations with the new technology. After the buildup of these weapons, many treaties were signed limiting their use as well as other countries agreeing to not continue making them at all
Identify similarities and differences between the Soviet Union and the United states during the Cold War?
Both of these countries used allied nations to confront each other. However, the United States aligned themselves with more democratic nations and set up bases globally and tried to contain the spread of Communism while the Soviets were still struggling with their own party as well as expanding communism to other nations
European Union
An international organization made up of over two dozen European nations, with a common currency and common policies and laws
Common currency used by member nations of the European Union
To make payments
Vladimir Putin
Elected president in Russia's second free election
An amount that is more than needed, excess
Gap between what a government spends and what it takes in through taxes and other sources
Pacific Rim
Vast region of nations, including counties in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Americas, that border the Pacific Ocean
What challenges has Germany faced since reunification?
Germany struggled with its economy and infrastructure after its reunification because they were not up to modern standards as well as the rise of unemployment when Communist factories began closing. Soon, social groups like the Neo-Nazis formed and blamed foreigners for the challenges they faced
How did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect the United States?
After the Soviet Union collapsed, the United States became the world's only superpower. George H.W. Bush started the Persian Gulf War. Then, Bill Clinton began operations to keep peace in Haiti and Yugoslavia. However, George W. Bush sent us back to war with the Middle East in the 2000s. From the 1990s through the 2000s the American economy went up and down which eventually led to a deficit from the economy and military expenses
What are the Asian tigers?
Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea were the four Asian Tigers. They had all quickly developed themselves during the 1980s, had Chinese influence, and focused heavily on education as a way to make workers more productive. Together, they focused on things like textiles, and exporting expensive goods for developed nations. Workers made many sacrifices for their success.
How did the end of the Cold War affect industrialized nations and regions around the world?
Many European nations grew and joined the European Union while places like Germany and Russia went through hard times with new leadership. However, the United States became the only superpower and used this influence to try and keep peace among nations while maintaining its own economy
How did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect organizations such as NATO and the EU?
Many nations under Soviet Control were able to join organizations like the NATO after its collapse. Some Western European counties joined the EU as a way to compete with other economic superpowers
Do you think an American investor would choose to invest large sums of money in Russia? Why or why not?
The political climate as well as the current Russian economy would probably not make for the best investment so I would say that they wouldn't
Why is the Pacific Rim seen as an important link in the global economy?
Trade in the Pacific Rim makes it such an important link. Since it has an even greater link than across the Atlantic it is predicted to have even further growth over the years