Ottoman infantry division, forcibly conscripted as young boys, bacame military slaves, used military strength to influence politics, inhibited Ottoman reform
Ottoman landowners/ gov't officials
area of Greece, lost by Ottomans
Selim II
tried to reform administration, military (janissaries), and beauacracy; failed and killed
Mahmud II
built secret army with western technology, murdered janissaries allowing western reforms to take place
Orthodox religious scholars, suspicious of non-Islamic thoughts and ideas
Tanzimat Reforms
included education based on western math and science, postal service, telegraphs, railroads, constitution (improved position of religious minority groups), treaty with the British that improved trade by removed taxes
conservative, got rid of constitution and returned to absolutism
Young Turks
liberal, helped spread liberal ideas, overthrew sultan
slaves who served in the military, defeated by French
shared power in Egypt, defeated by Napoleon, led Mamluks
Muhammad Ali
took over Egypt after French invasion, based military on western technology (conscription, navy), improved economy (public works, increased production of cotton, hemp, indigo)
succeeded Ali
Islamic holy war, scholars wanted strict only Muslim behavior
al- Afghani
thinker who believed in borrowing western ideas and rational inquiry
Achmad/ Mahdi
fought in Sudan against British and Egyptians, "mahdi" = "promised deliverer"
Khalifa Abdallahi
succeeded Achmad, set up strong centralized state in Sudan w/ no drinking, dancing, or foreigners
group of tribes from Manchuria (NE China) who defeated Ming Dynasty
united nomads and led attack on Ming, adopted Chinese ways
Qing Dynasty
dynasty led by Manchus, succeeded Ming
merchants who specialized in import/ export trade
Opium War
Britain wanted open trade in China and defeated Chinese
Commissioner Lin
tried to halt opium trade (destroyed opium on docks => Chinese refused to pay, war broke out)
Treaty on Nanking
ended Opium War, British got extraterritoriality (tried in their own courts in China), Hong Kong & China became spheres of European influence
Taiping Rebellion
offered change such as land redistribution, liberties for women, and universal education and healthcare and attacked the scholar-gentry
Self- Strengthening Movement
AKA Tongsi Restoration, gov't response to Taiping Rebellion, railroads, factories, modernized army
Boxer Rebellion
led by students and military officials against foreigners and Qing gov't
Empress Cixi
refused to reform China, died and left 5 year old Puyi on the throne
Sun Yat- Sen
formed Chinese republic