Chinggis Khan
Grandson of Kabul Khan; born in 1170s; elected supreme Mongol ruler (khagan) in 1206; began the Mongols' rise to world power; died 1227
Basic fighting units of Mongol forces; made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units
Muhammad Shah II
Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm; conquered by Mongols in 1220
Capital of Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan
Shamanistic religion
Mongol beliefs focused on nature spirits
Grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of the Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236.
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded him as Mongol khagan
Golden Horde
One of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russia during the 13th and 14th centuries
Prester John
A mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan
Ilkhan khanate
One of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid Empire
Grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad
Muslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars; defeated Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260
Kubilai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271.
Mongol capital of Yuan dynasty; present-day Beijing
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Confucian China
Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Romance of the West Chamber
Famous Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty
Ju Yuanzhang
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty.
Timur-i Lang
Last major nomad leader; 14th-century Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405
Title of supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
(1223 - 1277) Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally
Ming Dynasty
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.