Balance of Trade
Mid-17th century method in western Europe: if a country can make itself as self-sufficient as possible and also keep its citizens busy producing items sought in other lands, you can thus sell more good abroad than goods imported
Theories developed by British Board of Trade (economists): Balance of trade, etc. -- colonies seen as important source of raw materials
Theory that wealth is defined by how much gold and silver ("treasure") a nation possessed = power and prosperity -- (gold and silver = most important raw materials)
Enforced by parliament, designed to bring gold and silver into the Royal treasury to (1.) develop the imperial merchant fleet, (2.) to channel flow of colonial raw materials into England, and (3.) to keep foreign goods and vessels out of colonial ports.
--- this system is response to competition w/ Dutch. ---(1660) Required trade only to English ships.
---Tobacco, cotton, ginger, indigo, fustic only go to England. Later, all European products to England, then across Atlantic. Plus, rice, molasses, naval stores, furs, and copper later added.
Hat, Iron, and Wool Acts
-(1699) wool act prohibits export (but not manufacture for local sale) of cloth = stifles potential American industry.
-(1732) Hat Act ..not important.
-(1750) Iron Act = Iron business thrives in 1775 in VA, MD, NJ, PA -- parliament eliminates duties on iron which leads to stimulate the industry
Board of Trade
Nominates colonial governors and other high officials, reviews all laws passed by colonial legislatures
-they are concerned with commerce too
-Privy council and crown nearly always trust them
John Peter Zenger
German printer prints news about NY governor Cosby (slander) in NY Weekly Journal.
-His lawyer argues that he did not know that what he printed about Cosby was false ("trust is the best defense")
-Jury court ignores direct Crown orders and acquits Zenger
Intellectuals of the 18th century enlightenment (French) like Montesquieu and voltaire = their writing affect more than religion
-Tabula rasa = "All men are created equal," mind is a blank slate
-Social contract = Locke advocates natural born rights. People become a functional society by mutual consent to rules and laws. They will be good for the greater good of the whole.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) French philosophes during Enlightenment
-3 forms of government: monarchies, republics, and despotisms
-2 types of government power: sovereign and administrative
Churchgoing colonists who doubted the divinity of Christ (Ben Franklin, for example)
-"Revere God for his marvels of His universe, not for His power over mankind"
Believed in toleration and equal rights for religious dissenters. He helped found unitarianism in England
Founded Junto (club to discuss morals, philosophy, and politics), newspaper writer, invented lightning rod, iron Franklin stove, bifocal spectacles, etc.
-One of the founding fathers
Battle of Louisbourg (Cape Breton)
(1740-1748) New England forces captured fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, guarding the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
-King George's War - American phase of 3rd Anglo-French conflict, the war of the Austrian succession
Treaty of Aix-La-Chappelle
1748: Returns Louisbourg fortress (sad for New Englanders)
June 1755, General Edward Broddock marched against Fort Duquesne with soldiers and was defeated by a smaller # of French and Indians (GW was there).
-organization of French and Indians led to their win
1750s: Of VA, investor in the Ohio company, dispatched GW to warn the French that they were trespassing on VA territory. Promoted GW to lieutenant colonel, sends GW to Ohio
William Pitt, Sr.
1758: Grandson of "Diamond" Pitt, East Indian merchant, takes over leadership of war from King George II. Sent many British in, used naval powers to fight, promoted general *James Wolfe*.
-Helped capture fort duquesne (name changed to fort pitt), fort niagara, crown point (general amherst), and British won canada, victories against Spanish in Cuba and Manila, and French in West Indies and India = AMAZING STRATEGIST
Albany plan for union
1754: Plan for colonial union proposed by Franklin, rejected by almost everyone. British did not bother.
The Great Expulsion
1755-1763: VA expands westward into Ohio Valley. PA settlers expand there too. Ohio Company claims this area but French set up for there.
Marquis de Montcalm
1760: French General Louis Joseph de Montcalm prepared defenses at St. Lawrence by Québec, but general wolfe (british) found chink in the defenses - he and wolfe died in battle. Montréal fell, so did Québec.
General James Wolfe
1758, 1760, etc.: Made a British brigadier by *Pitt,* sailed to St. Lawrence by Québec, died bravely in battle against *Montcalm*
Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Battle for Québec)
1760s: Wolfe vs. Montcalm, British won Québec and additionally Montréal later
Treaty of Paris
1763: Peace finally, British get Canada + eastern half of Mississippi Valley, France abandons all territory except for 2 islands near Newfoundland, Spanish receive Philippines again + Cuba, but they gave East and West FL to Britain.
1764ish: Led by Ottawa chief to drive whites across mountains. Failed.
Prime minister grenville
1764: wanted to reduce government spending. Parliament passed (under his leadership) the *Sugar Act*
-He wanted to end smuggling and corruption
-*Stamp Act* - he hoped it would produce much money in America
-Repealed *Stamp Act* because of pressure from British merchants
Proclamation line of 1763
1763: (closes off land in the west) Land development in the Ohio valley -- made Americans mad, meant to keep colonies tied to England + to save money
-meant to close off the West to pacify Indians
-Creates resentment/builds tension from Americans
1774: Angered patriots, made loyalists who support the Crown mad - helps accelerate revolution
-Province's territory expanded - this act is part of the Intolerable Acts
East FL, West FL, Québec
1770s: 3 new colonies created in compensation for the fact that purchasing Indian land is forbidden - not permitted to set up local assemblies
1764: Under Grenville
-Tariffs on sugar, coffee, wines, etc. that are imported into America
-Tension rises: Americans believe they shouldn't be taxed
1760s: Juryless courts that later, during Sugar Act, Stamp Act, etc., expanded to *enforce charges for smuggling, etc.*
James Otis: The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved, 1764
1764: "Everyone should be free from all taxes but what he consents to in person, or by his representative"
describes the british system but makes no sense in america.
-Confusion between virtual and geographic (actual) representation revealed how much colonial and British politics had diverged
Stamp Act (1765)
1765: Grenville puts tax on lots of printed matter
-Hopes to bring revenue from this.
-Lots of mobs
Stamp Act Congress
1765: a step into the revolution brings 9 delegates of colonies to NY
-Another extralegal organization
1765: introduced resolutions to the Stamp Act - says that Burgesses only has right to lay taxes - suggests Parliament has no authority to tax colonies
-represents voice of the young
"Sons of Liberty"
1760s: "Liberty Boys" is an organization w/ brilliant men
-marks start of revolution
-vicious riots, shootings, etc.
1760s: Act that says colonists must provide housing and food for british troops (who the colonists disliked)
John Wilkes and Parliamentary reform
1760s: Introduced first bill for parliamentary reform
1760s: "the colonies are subordinate and parliament can enact any laws they wish"
-Highlights difference in British and American views
Townshend duties (1767)
1767: Charles Townshend introduces levies on lead, glass, paints, and paper, and tea imported into the colonies.
Massachusetts General Court's Circular Letter
1768: Expresses the "humble opinion" that Townshend Acts were "infringements of natural constitutional rights."
John Dickinson: Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer
1770: Response to Townshend Acts - says that parliament has no right to tax colonies
March 5, 1770: Ppl throw snowballs, guns fired, 5 people dead. People are angry, John Adams protects them
Helps soldiers from Boston Massacre get fair trial (lawyer)
Gaspee incident (1772)
1772: Gaspee = British patrol boat set on fire = no one testified against them = true rebellion
"Committees of Correspondence"
Radicals formed these to plan joint action in case of trouble - organized colony-wide resistance movement
Tea Act of 1773
1773: Lord North decides to keep tax on tea, but offer bargain prices - if colonists buy, they're submitting to parliamentary taxation. NY and Philly try to send back tea.
British East India Tea Co.
1770s: Held monopoly of all trade between India and rest of empire - works with parliament to gain profits again (poor)
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 177__ ): colonists dressed as indians dump tea from the ship Dartmouth into the harbor
-serious crime, no American jury would punish them
1770s: Radical, Bostonian, determined to prevent Dartmouth ship from landing its cargo of tea
Coercive (intolerable acts)
1774: Parliament's Response to Boston Tea party - the boston port act closes boston harbor to all commerce until citizens pay for tea
-colony's charter = gov. power stronger, council appointive, changing jury choosing method
-Cost Great Britain a lot
First continental congress
1774: Met in philly (GA did not send delegates) - Galloway (PA) suggested an American government
-John Adams says parliament cannot control US
-Congress passed grievances
-Organized a "continental association" to boycott British goods + stop exports to the Empire
Lexington and Concord
1775: First battle - Paul Revere goes off to worn patriots
- First battle between Redcoats and Minute Men in Lexington, then British arched into Concord where American soldiers surrounded
Second Continental Congress
1775: Met in Philly w/ John and Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee (VA), ppl from First Congress, Thomas Jefferson (VA), Ben Franklin
-John Hancock = president of the congress
-Here, they dealt with military problems, organized the continental army
Appointed as commander-in-chief of Continental Army during revolutionary war.
"Olive Branch Petition"
Continental Congress's last plea to the king - King George III refused to read it because colonies do not have right to directly ask the King
Battle of Bunker Hill
Continental seize Bunker Hill at Charlestown. Redcoast march up hill... they lose more than 1000 out of 2500, Continentals lost only 400 men. British won the hill, but this battle proves to the colonists that the British are defeatable. Later, British replace General Gage with General William Howe
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Called for complete independence, attacked George III, attacked the idea of a monarchy
-"Government is our own natural right"
-caused congress in 1776 to unleash privateers against British commerce, opens American ports to foreign shipping, and urges Patriots who had set up extralegal provincial conventions to frame constitutions and establish state governments
Declaration of Independence
Describes the right of any people to revolt, describes theory which Americans base their new republican government, lists George III's injuries and usurpations, stresses monarch's interference with America functioning, etc.
-Blames king for existence of slavery in the colonies (mostly cut out of doc.)
-*Intended to influence foreign opinion, but its proclamation had little effect outside Great Britain
Va, went to Second Continental Congress, wrote Declaration of Independence. Placed on a committee with Ben Franklin and others probably because politics required that a Virginian be included and because of his literary skill. He wrote A Summary View of the Rights of British America.
-youngest member of Continental Congress
Support the Crown in general (also called Tories)
-Anglican clergymen support King George III
-Some become Tories because they're pessimistic about life, others because they believe that rebellion is not justified despite Britain's actions.
-Tories are very unorganized
-Loyalists are abused, attacked
-Battles between Tories and the Continental Army often took place
1777: Led an army from Canada to Lake Champlain toward Albany while 2 other armies (British) came up towards Albany from other sides to trap the New England states. He previously captured Fort Ticonderoga and during the Battle of Saratoga, he was attacked by American forces (British forces were useless) and he eventually surrendered. Many British prisoners sent to VA.
Battle of Saratoga
Battle where American forces under Philip Schuyler and later under Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold attack General Burgoyne and win Fort Saratoga.
-This triumph led to France and Spain helping, more supplies being sent, etc.
-France decides to help US
-Britain realizes (Lord North) that a Franco-American alliance was inevitable. He becomes ready to give in and repeal Coercive and Tea Acts; this all done late