an extra sum of money that borrowers have to repay creditors in return for the loan
Jay's Treaty
Treaty signed in 1794 between the US and bBritain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory.
loose construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
not taking sides in a conflict or dispute
strict construction
belief that the goavernment should not do anything that the constitution does not specifically say it can do
tax on foreign goods imported into a country
Battle of New Orleans
battle in 1815 between american and british troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an american victory
a severe economic downturn marked by a decrease in business activity, widespread unemployment, and falling prices and wages
policy of forcing people into military or public service
Missouri Compromise
1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, and outlawing slavery in future states to be created North of 36 30 N lattitude
Treaty of Ghent
agreement, signed in 1814, that ended the War of 1812
to revise
checks and balances
system in which each of the branches of the federal government can check the actions of the other branches
federal system of government
a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities
separation of power
the constitutional allotting of power within the federal government among the legislative, executive, a judicial branches
Three-Fifths Compromise
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention calling for three-fifths of a states slave population to be countd for the purposes of legislative representation
to prevent from becoming a law
popular sovereignty
policy of letting the people in a territory decide whether slavery would be allowed there
Fugitive Slave Act
part of the compromise of 1850, a law ordering all citizens of the US to assist in the return of of escapeed slaves
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 law that called for the creation of these two new territories, and stated that the citizens in each territory should decide whether slavery would be allowed there
Upper South
designation used in the civil war encompassing the staes of virginia, north carolina, tennessee, arkansas
Confederate States of American
association of seven seceding southern states, formed in 1861
an unreasonable, usually unfavorale opinion of another group
a policy of favoring native-born americans over immigrants
person who wanted the south to secede
Compromise of 1850
agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories
Border states
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
to join or attach, as in the joining of a new territoy to an existing country
republican virtues
virtues the american people would need to govern themselves, such as self-reliance, industry, frugality, harmony, and the ability to sacrifice individual needs for the communtiy
items seized from the enemy during wartime
name given to the national paper
Emancipation Proclamation
a presendential decree, by President Lincoln, effective Jan. 1, 1863, that freed slaves in Conferderate held territory
writ of habeas corpus
legal protection requiring that a court determine whether a person is lawfully imprisioned
opponents of the Constitution: opposed the concept of a strong central government
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the constituion
group organized around a common interest and concerned only with furthering that interest
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
approve or sanction
John C. Calhoun
Senator of South Carolina that declared that the south would not give up its liberty to save the union
Robert E. Lee
general of confederate forces during the civil war
John Brown
An abolitionist that led the attack on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia
Jefferson Davis
elected president of the confederate states of america; from mississippi
Stephen Douglas
senator of illinios who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Henry Clay
He proposed to congress the compromise of 1850; the senator of kentucky
Abraham Lincoln
He opposed slavery on moral grounds in debates with Stephen Douglas; a republican; became 16th president of the US
Charles Sumner
Senator of Massachusetts who gave a powerful antislavery speech entitled ''The Crime Against Kansas'' in congress
John C. Fremont
He helped to defeat the Mexican army in california
William Henry Seward
republican antislavery leader during the 1860s; acquired Alaska in 1867 as Secretary of State
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
Great Plains
vast grassland between the mississippi river and the rocky mountains
Texas War for Independence
successful revolt by texans against mexican rule in 1835-1836
Battle of the Alamo
capture by mexican troops of a texas held mission in san antonio in 1836
people who move their homes regulary usually in serach of available food sources
fort built in southwest by spanish
a low place in a mountain range that allowes travelers to cross over the other side
manifest destiny
argrument that it was the undeniable fate of the US to expand across North America
to surrender officailly or unformaly
mountain men
an american fur trader who explored the rocky mountains and regions farther west in the early 1800s
area west of the appalacian mountans
Gadsden Purchase
1853 purchase by the US of southwestern lands from mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty signed in 1848 by the Us and Mexico, ending the mexico war
list of items to accomplish
departments that make up a large organization, such as the government
a ban or restriction on trade
Louisiana Purchase
Purchase by the US of the Louisiana territoy form France in 1803
Lewis and Clark expedition
journey by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark through the Louisiana territory from 1804-1806
a written plan of government
executive branch
the part of the government that executes, or carries out laws
judicial branch
the part of the government that decides if laws have been broken
legislative branch
the part of a government that makes the laws
government run by the people through their elected representatives
gold or silver coin
McCulloch vs. Maryland
"Bank of the US Case" A Maryland law required federally chartered banks to use only a specail paper to print money, which amounted to a tax. McCulloh, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to use the paper, claiming that states could not tax the federal government. The court declared the Maryland Law unconstitutional.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Gibboins vs. Ogden
This case examined the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
Monroe Doctrine
policy of president James Monroe stating that the US would consider any European interference in the nations of the Americas as an unfriendly act
Indian Removal Act
1830 Law calling for the president to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for Land taken from them in the East.
Trail of Tears
forced march of 15,000 Cherokee from their homes in the southeast to western reservations from 1837 to 1838
spoils system
patronage system under president Andrew Jackson
Tariff of 1828
A high tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods; called the "Tariff of Abominations" by south
formally withdraw from a political organization; southern states seceded from the US to form the confederacy in late 1860 and early 1861
abolitionist movement
Movement to end slavery
the freeing of enslaved people
Underground Railroad
network of people who helped fugitives from slaverey excape into the north and canada
gag rule
rule passed in 1836 by southern representatives in congress that prevented antislavery petitions form being considered by the house for eight years
Lower South
states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
intellectual and philosophical movement of the mid-1800s esserting that the nature of reality can be learned only by intuition rather than through experience
temperance movement
campaign against alcohol consumption; began as part of the middle-class reform movements of the 1800s
Forced separation, often times by race
refraining from some activity, such as drinking
utopian community
small societies whose members seek perfect social and political conditions
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
a states refusal to recognize or uphold a federal law
XYZ affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Virginia and Kentucky resolution
Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional
a presidents term in office, or the group of officials that makes up the executive branch, including the president
heads of the major departments of the US governement who advise the President
domestic affairs
Issues relating to a country's internal matters
official swearing-in ceremony
custom arising from previous practice rather than a written law