What is it that humans cannot do without, next to breathe oxygen
Humans cannot live without liquid refreshments
How did early men ensure an adequate supply of fresh water some 10,000 years ago
Early men got their water supply by living near rivers, springs, and lakes
Name four roles that drinks have taken, or been a part of, over the years
Some roles that drinks have been a part of over the years was for currencies, religious rites, political symbols, and artistic inspiration
What are some periods that archeologists divide time into?
The periods that archeologist divided time into was stone, bronze, and iron age.
What is it about these drinks that the author says dominates the periods the embody
The drinks that dominate the periods the embody is that each one defined drinking during a historical period from antiquity to the present day
What makes beer so significant during its time
beer was significant at this time because it was in the inhabitants wages and rations
What makes wine significant during this time
Wine was the lifeblood of the Mediterranean civilization and the basis of wast seaborne trade. This helped spread Greek ideas.
What makes distilled alcohols significant during this time
Distilled alcohols were used as currency to buy slaves
What makes coffee significant during this time
Coffee promoted clarity of thought. This was made the ideal drink for scientists, businessmen, and philosophers
What makes tea significant during this time
Tea contributed to the independence of the United States, the undermining of China's ancient civilization, and the establishment of tea production in India.
What makes Coca-Cola significant during this time
Coca-Cola is America's national drink and a vibrant consumer of capitalism.
The author gives a very short rendition of the origins of Coke in the introduction.
The origins of Coke was by a Atlanta pharmacist and it was devised as a medical pick-me-up
What were the first beers made from
The first beers was made from wheat and barely
Beer is said to be fairly certain that wasn't around before what date, but was around, or widely spread, by this due date
Beer wasn't around in 10,000 BCE but it widely spreaded in the Near East by 4,000 BCE
Why is it ironic that the discovery of beer is located in Mesopotamia
It was ironic because Mesopotamia had fertile land that can provide the ingredients
Why was it consumed through the straw
Beer was consumed by a straw so they can avoid the grains, chaff, and debris
What helped Mesopotamia become the "Fertile Crescent" after the last ice age
The uplands of Mesopotamia helped it become the fertile crescent since it had rich soil
Describe how bereal grains were probably consumed before it became beer
Grains were probably consumed by crushing and soaking them in water
What was cereal grains unusual property
Cereal grains were unusual because they could be stored for consumption for months or even years later iskept dry or safe
There was an experiment conducted in the 1960's on harvesting wild grains. Summarize what the outcome of the experiment was
The experiment that was conducted in 1960 for wild grains concluded into two pounds of grains. The archaeologist gathered that each grain family worked 8 hours a day for 3 weeks
How did early man come about discovering the sweetness from grains
Early men came about discovering the sweetness from grain was by moistening grains
Describe the second step to the discovery of beer
The second step to discovering beer was bappir
What were the probable first alcohols in the world? What set beer apart from these first alcohols
The first probable alcohols were wine and spirits. Beer was set apart from these because beer consisted grains and the others didn't
How did they improve beer
They improved beer by filtering out debris
What gave more reliable results in this process of self-discovery
Using the same container repeatedly gave more reliable results in this process of self-discovery
Describe bappir and why would it only be used for edible consumption during lean times
Bappir was used for edible consumption during lean times because it was eaten for food shortages
What were "two-side of the coin"
Brea was solid beer and beer was liquid bread
What made drinking beer out of the same vessel a sign of hospitality? What tradition do we still practice today that continues this practice.
Drinking beer was a sign of hospitality by signaling that the person offering the drink can be trusted
Why was beer considered a gift from gods
Beer was considered a gift from the gods because of its ability to intoxicate and induce a state of altered consciousness seemed magical
Why kind of symbolic gesture is raising your glass during an event
The practice of raising a glass is to wish someone good health, happy marriage, a safe passage to the afterlife, ot to celebrate success
Out of the speculations stated in the book why early humans transitioned to farming. Which one can be determined is the author belief?
Early humans transitioned to farming because of climate changes, species died, or species were hunted to extinction
After farming took route in early societies, why would going back to hunter-gathering be difficult
Hunting- gathering would be difficult because species were going extinct
Why did beer help early society
Beer helped early society because it was an extraordinary significance to the people of the people of the great civilization
What did the storehouse of the surplus grain become
The storehouse of the surplus grain became temples
What groups of people were the first to experience entirely urban lives
Administrators and craftsmen who did not work in the field lived in urban lives
Why did villages possibly start to ban together around 4300 BCE to form larger cities?
The lack of natural boundaries is what made the villages band together
What does civilization mean?
The word civilization means living in cities
On top of being a national diet, what else was grain used for?
Grain was used for being the logical medium of exchange
What was the first literary reference to beer
The first literary reference to beer was the Epic of Gilgamesh
Enkidu becomes human after he does what
Enkidu becomes human by drinking a lot
Who was to blame for the "precarious" natures of Sumerian life? Why?
Their capricious was blamed for the precarious because of it's behavior
Describe the pictogram for beer? Now draw it
The pictogram for beer has a jar with two straws and two people drinking the beer through the straws
Describe how Hathor became the goddess of beer and brewing in Eqypt
Hathora became the goddess af beer and brewing by becoming intoxicated, falling asleep, and forgetting her bloody mission
Which civilization had a stronger disapproval of drunkness
The apprentice scribe in Egypt had a strong disapproval of drunkenness.
Give examples of two phrases with beer mentioned in it that had a different meaning
"Take not upon thyself to drink a jug of beer" "...to sit in the beer hall"
What were surpluses officially considered
Surpluses were officially considered when it was consumed by a temple bureaucracy or traded for goods and services
How were priests depicted
Priest were depicted by wearing beards, long kilts, round headdresses, and drinking beer from large pots.
What were clay "envelopes" called
Clay envelopes were called tax receipts
What replaced tokens
Envelopes replaced token
What was the primary source of food for most people
Beer, onions, dates, and the ration was the primary source of food
Writing started out as a means for recording
Writing started out for recordig taxes receipts and ration payments
How did cuneiform come about
The cuneiform came about by recording the location of beer
WHere would we find the world's oldest recipe for beer? What was the story
We would find the world's oldest recipe for beer in Mesopotamia. The story behind it was that Enki was preparing a feast for this father Enkil
What made beer an ideal currency form
Beer was the ideal currency because it was a liquid since it's easily divisible.
Describe what "bride price" is
The bride price is a wedding payment that is made by the groom's family to the bride
By 2035 BCE, how many state employed people were there
By 2053 BCE there was 300,000 people that were employed
Since workers at the Giza Pyramids were paid with so much beer, what did some call themselves
Since the workers at the Giza Pyramids were paid with beer some of them called themselves "Drunkards of Menkaure"
The term " bread and beer" is used as an everyday greeting similar to...
Bread and beer was similar to "food and drink"
What ensured the development of young school kids health
Two jars of beer and three loaves of bread developed young school kids health
Beer is logical choice to be used in early medicine because of what reason
Beer was used for medicine because it was a mild sedative and a concoction with herbs and spices
In religious texts that mentioned "beer that would not turn sour" meant what two things
"beer that would not turn sour" means to pursue beer but hard to store it
What practice still around today is a surviving symbol of beer's magical properties
Toasting is the surviving symbol of beer;s magical properties