Short answer tests are not used because they do not measure disciplinary mastery or deep understanding. They only measure tote memorization skills and one's ability to do well on short answer tests. Some states have developed tests that value process over the final answer, such as PAM (Performance Assessment in Math) and PAL (Performance Assessment in Language) People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence. Human beings have all of the intelligences, but each person has a unique combination, or profile. Intelligence level does not change over a lifetime.

We can all improve each of the intelligences, though some people will improve more readily in one intelligence area than in others. Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language. There are many more types of intelligence which reflect different ways of interacting with the world. In traditional practice, teachers teach the same material to everyone. M. I. Pedagogy implies that teachers teach and assess differently based on individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses. Teachers teach a topic or "subject. " Teachers structure learning activities around an issue or question and connect subjects.

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Teachers develop strategies that allow for students to demonstrate multiple ways of understanding and value their uniqueness. 1. 3 What do multiple intelligences have to do with my classroom? There are numerous ways to express oneself, and probably even more ways to gain knowledge and understand the universe. Individuals are capable, the theory of multiple intelligences advocates, of deep understanding and mastery in the most profound areas of human experience. Even long before the theory emerged and was named in 1983 by Howard Gardner, numerous teachers fostered the intelligences of their students.

EXAMPLE: Think of it this way: J. K. Rolling, Richard Funnyman, Lauren Hill, Julian Schnabel, Aim Ham, Colic Powell, Deepen Copra, Jane Goodwill, and Gary Larson are students on your seating chart. # J. K. s writing the next Harry Potter adventure on scraps of paper. # Richard is daydreaming the equations enabling a quantum computer. # Lauren softly hums the tunes for the sequel to "The Insemination of Lauren Hill. " # Julian has painted brilliant fall leaves on each windowpane. # Aim can't wait to get to # Colic has organized the school's charity fund drive. Deepen provides in-class spiritual counseling. # Gary scrawls witty absurdities in the margins of his notebook. The next time you have a chance to reflect on your class, imagine your students as individuals who have fully realized and developed their intelligences. 1. How has M. I. Theory developed since it was introduced in 1983? Multiple intelligence theory has evolved and been embraced widely. After the publication of FRAMES OF MIND in 1983 (See our Resources), Howard Gardner became a celebrity among many teachers and school administrators.

In addition to writing many more books and articles on multiple intelligences theory, Gardner has served as a consultant to a variety of school districts. The multiple intelligences movement now includes publishers, symposiums, Web sites, "how-to" manuals, educational consultants who consider themselves "M. I. Specialists", as well as a number of critics. Howard Gardner and others have revised and expanded the theory Howard Gardner, formulator of the theory, continues to be its chief spokesperson. He has been acclaimed as the most influential educational theorist since John Dewey.