Akbar the Great
(1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.
A blending of two or more religious traditions
Ottoman Empire
1299-1918; multinational empire; stretched from E. Europe & the Balkans to N. Africa & the Middle East @ its height; began decline in 1600/1700s
the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
Nicholas Copernicus
(1543) Polish scholar who proposed a heliocentric model of the universe.
A group of French "radicals" who focused on human reason and making critical changes in society
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society; compiled by Denis Diderot
Matteo Ricci
A Jesuit missionary to Ming China.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Chinese Rites Controversy
conflict between traditional Chinese rites and rituals and foreign Christian taboos on idol worship during the 17th-18th centuries. Sects of Christianity disagreed upon whether ceremonies honoring Confucius were idolatrous or not. Eventually, the Vatican banned the rites. This position was upheld until it was overturned in the mid 20th century.
Columbian Exchange
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
Church-based associations of lay people.
National Assembly
A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Levée en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Reign of Terror
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
1 movement work by Liszt based on folk/nationalistic melodies
Brothers Grimm
Second half of the 19th century German brothers who collected German fairytales and aided the cause of German nationalism by showing Germans that they shared the same literature and thus similar values.
English Garden
a type of garden design of artificial naturalness that became popular in England beginning in the early 1700s with irregular features and winding walkways
Petőfi Sándor
a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary, author of the Nemzeti dal (National Song), and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
Cecil Rhodes
(1853-1902) British statesman who was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world's diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region. His master plan was to establish a Cape to Cairo railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa. The Boers, however, provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal. After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvall which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office. However, the seeds of the Boer War had been sown. Zimbabwe used to be named for him.
Berlin Conference
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans.
Communication by transmitting signals over a wire. Messages could be sent over long distances in a short period of time.
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Swami Vivekananda
1863-1902; Indian Hindu; spoke at the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago, Illinois; Ramakrishna Mission; spread Hindu teachings to America
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Macartney Mission
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire.
Taiping Uprising
(1850-1864); rejected Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism; Accepted a unique form of Christianity; led by Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) "long lost younger brother of Jesus"; called for abolition of private property, radical redistribution of land, the equality of men and women: the end of foot binding, prostitution, and opium smoking: the organization of society into sexually segregated military camps of men and women; Hong Rengan: developed plans for transforming China into an industrial nation, complete with railroads, health insurance for all, newspapers, and widespread public education; established capital in Nanjing in 1853; crushed in 1864 due to inability to properly unify
Treaty of Nanking
1842. Result of the First Opium War. Hong Kong was given to the Brits, 4 more treaty ports were opened to the Brits, and British residents in China and their guests were not subject to Chinese law.
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Belle Époque
"beautiful era," name for positive view of the 1870-1914 (no major wars, industry/wealth, middle class is dominating, galleries/music halls/theaters, education, universal male suffrage)
the safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations
English week
seven day week where workers got off Sundays and half on Saturday
Football Association
organized athletic group in England; sought to teach teamwork, useful for military service