Why did the population of Europe double between 1800 and 1900?
The rate of death rapidly fell
What were some of the reasons for the rapid decline in death rate?
More food due to improvements in farming, improvements in sanitation
What is the germ theory?
That microorganisms cause infections and disease
Who was Louis Pasteur?
French chemist who proved that the germ theory was true. He also developed vaccines for rabies & anthrax and created the process of pasteurization
Who was Robert Koch?
A German doctor who discovered the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
How did people change their lives once they learned the germ theory was true?
They began to bathe and change their clothes more often
Who was Florence Nightingale?
A British nurse who pushed for better hygiene and sanitation in hospitals
Who was Joseph Lister?
An English surgeon who discovered that antiseptics prevent infection
What is urban renewal?
The rebuilding of poor areas of cities
How did industrialization improve cities?
Paved streets made it easier to get around, electricity made nighttime safer, sewage systems made cities cleaner, steel allowed for bigger buildings, cities created police and fire departments
Did city life improve for everyone?
No. The poor still lived in overcrowded tenements filled with crime
Why did people want to move to cities?
To find work in the factories, to see new inventions like electricity and to enjoy new entertainments like theater, tennis, boxing, museums, opera etc
What is a mutual-aid society?
A self help group formed by workers to help their sick and injured
What is a union?
A workers' organization
What was the main tactic of unions?
A strike, which is a work stoppage
What did workers demand when they went on strike?
Better working conditions and more pay
What laws did governments pass in response to strikes?
Banning of child labor, limiting work hours, improved safety regulations, disability insurance, pensions
What is standard of living?
A measure of the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
How did the Industrial Revolution change life in the cities?
Positive: Cities became more livable thanks to the invention of electric lights, sewage systems and better hospital care. The development of steel led to bigger buildings and cities. New entertainments like opera houses and theaters were created Negative: Cities still had large amounts of poor people who lived in slums, some areas were riddles with unemployment and crime