Industrial Revolution
The change from being an agricultural to an industrial nation. It started in England in the textile industry.
Why did the the Industrial Revolution start in England?
England had a good food supply because of the agricultural revolution, there was a large and mobile work force and trade was well established and growing. England was also free from the destruction of Napoleon's wars since they were an isolated island nation and their government was stable.
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill
Charles Townsend
introduced the system of crop rotation
Robert Bakewell
This person was a pioneer in the field of selective animal breeding. He bred animals for certain characteristics.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
John Kay
1733, a British inventor who invented the flying shuttle. Made it possible for one person instead of two to operate a loom in textile manufacturing. It increased the output of woven material and therefore also the demand for yarn.
James Hargreaves
This was the man who created the spinning jenny which began the actual Industrial Revolution and the beginning of machines doing a man's work
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
Samuel Crompton
1779, a British inventor who combined the best features of the spinning jenny with the water frame and came up with the spinning mule/Crompton's mule.
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825). This meant that spinning, weaving and preparation of raw cotton could keep pace with one another. The manufacture of cotton goods took off at a furious pace.
domestic system
Early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
factory system
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
Henry Cort
In the 1780s, Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug). Cort also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.
Henry Bessemer
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
James Watt
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
John McAdam
A scottish engineer that equipped road beds with a layer of large stones for drainage and on top placed a layer of smoother rocks, prevented heavy wagons from sinking into the mud
Richard Trevithick
English engineer who built the first railway locomotive (1771-1833)
George Stephenson
1814, a British inventor who built the first successful steam locomotive. By 1829 his Rocket traveled on the world's first railroad line from Manchester to Liverpool at average speed of 16mph. By the 1840s the era of railroad construction had begun in Europe and the US.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Orville and Wilbur Wright
These brothers were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903.
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947). Manufactured the Model T Ford.
the use of machinery in place of human labor
Interchangeable Parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Division of Labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
Assembly Line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
In what country did the Industrial Revolution begin?
What inventions helped in the development of the textile industry and who invented them?
the flying shuttle by John Kay, the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves, spinning frame by Richard Arkwright
What is the name of the system in which workers worked at home using their own tools and determining how much they wanted to work?
domestic system
What changes in transportation helped the progress of the Industrial Revolution?
building better roads, steam engine for water transportation and railroads
What are the four main production methods that helped manufacturers produce more at cheaper prices?
automation, interchangeable parts, division of labor, assembly line
William Wilberforce
Deeply religious Englishman who continuously led the effort against slavery in Britain. In 1807 he succeeded in having the Parliament pass a law abolishing the slave trade in English territory.
a campaign aimed to correct abuses or malpractices
Corn Laws
Enacted in 1815, these laws protected British agriculture by placing strict limits on the amount of foreign grain to be imported. They resulted in keeping basic food prices artificially high until their repeal in 1846.
Reform Bill of 1832
doubled the amount of middle class men allowed to vote by lowering how much tax a person had to pay in order to be allowed to vote
The movement of supporters of the People's Charter (drawn up in Britain in 1838), which sought to transform Britain into a democracy and demanded universal suffrage for men, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, annual elections, and the elimination of property qualifications for and the payment of stipends to members of Parliament.
Benjamin Disraeli
(1804-1881) Conservative Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings.
William Gladstone
(1809-1898) English Prime Minister (Liberal) known as the "Grand Old Man". Instituted liberal reforms which were designed to remove long standing abuses without destroying existing institutions. He believed in Home Rule for Ireland. In 1870 he passed the Education Act of 1870 and the Order in Council which replaced patronage as a means of entering civil service with competitive examinations. He introduced The Ballot Act of 1872 which provided for a secret ballot. He was a strong religious man.
Parliament Bill of 1911
Eliminates veto power of House of Lords.
welfare state
is a concept of government where the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization
An economic system in which the government owns and controls the means of producing goods. Emphasizes the group rather than the individual.
Utopian Socialism
This was a belief that came out of the philosophes during the French Enlightenment that believed that if things in society were made equal then man's natural goodness could be perfected. It believed that the profit motive of capitalism was the source of evil.
Robert Owen
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences. Predicted violent proletariat revolution, and then government would eventually wither away
Friedrich Engels
(28 November 1820 - 5 August 1895) He was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848).
Created by Marx and Engels this is the economic and political theory of socialism in which a class struggle would exist until the workers were finally victorious, creating a classless society.
the workers of a nation
British socialists who wanted to achieve a socialist society without revolution.
Christian Socialists
Liberals who believed that Christianity and capitalism were incompatible and believed that society should live according to Sermon on the Mount.
Robert Raikes
This man started a Sunday school for poor street children and is known as the "Father of the Sunday School Movement."
George Mueller
He was a German missionary to the orphans of England. He started many orphanages for homeless children mainly in Bristol, England.
William Booth
British religious leader (1829-1912) who founded the salvation army. Wanted to help the poor, working classes by getting other Christians involved in helping.
Dwight L. Moody
Evangelist that held many revivals. He believed that conditions in society will only improve when society converts. Preached to the people to accept Christ.
Goals of the Chartist Movement
universal manhood suffrage (the right to vote), the secret ballot, equal electoral districts, pay for members of Parliament, no property qualifications for members of Parliament and annual elections to Parliament
Name two dominant prime ministers of Britain during the late 19th century and their parties.
Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone
What force did Karl Marx believe determined the course of history?
Das Kapital
Karl Marx's book that said all social classes should end and everyone should be equal with equal ownership of businesses
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Marx and Engels and said that goal of history would be reached when the workers rise up and unite against capitalism.
What false ideas does socialism base its beliefs on?
man is good by nature and it is society that corrupts him AND if society can be improved then man will be improved
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
Charles Darwin
This was the scientist who published the theory of evolution after his travels to the Galapagos Islands
Origin of Species
work of Darwin published in 1859, said that those creatures best able to adapt to their environment survive while those with inferior characteristics survive. This is called the theory of survival of the fittest.
The Descent of Man
work of Darwin published in 1871, applied evolutionary theory to man saying that man developed from animals and not from the hand of the Creator
John Dalton
English chemist who developed the Atomic theory of matter through an experiment of gases. His theory states that all elements are composed of atoms and atoms can't be divided or destroyed.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements
William Roentgen
The German physicist who discovered x-rays in 1895 while working with vacuum tubes.
Henry Moseley
British scientist who helped reorganize and revise Mendeleev's periodic table as more was learned about atoms
Pierre and Marie Curie
found two new radioactive elements (uranium and pitchblende) that were added to he periodic table
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist that said the atom was made up of at least two parts- a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons
Niels Bohr
Danish physicist who proposed that electrons revolve around the nucleus of atoms in circular paths called orbits; said that the nucleus is made up of two kinds of particles- positive protons and neutral neutrons
Albert Einstein
Greatest scientific thinker of the 20th century, showed the relationship between matter and energy and gave us the Theory of Relativity
This movement was a rejection of romanticism and a belief that life should be portrayed as it really is. This was the new style of literature/art that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion.
Charles Dickens
English novelist (a realist) who attacked injustices in society through his representation of places like slums and debtors prisons. Wrote Hard Times.
Thomas Hardy
British novelist and poet who wrote about man's struggles in this life and portrayed man as engaged in a hopeless struggle with forces beyond his control
Samuel Clemens
American writer who wrote under the name Mark Twain and used humor to convey his ideas about man's struggles in life
Leo Tolstoy
Russian novelist who wrote realistically about life in Russia during the Napoleonic Wars
Gustave Courbet
famous realist painter; The Stone Breakers and The Third Class Carriage
a movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time
Auguste Renoir
a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the impressionist style
Claude Monet
Impressionist painter who used color rather than shape to show emphasis
Auguste Rodin
French sculptor - one of his famous pieces is "The Thinker".
Claude Debussy
A French composer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, known for his free rhythms and indefinite keys. His music is often compared to the paintings of the impressionists. The piano piece "Claire de lune" ("Moonlight") and the orchestra piece La Mer (The Sea) are two of his best-known works.
Paul Cezanne
Post-Impressionist painter who used different techniques-did not try to reproduce nature but to find order in nature, believed that the artist could reduce everything in nature to basic geometric shapes
Vincent Van Gogh
Dutch postimpressionist painter noted for his use of color (1853-1890), often distorted the figures in his paintings in an effort to portray the intense emotions he felt towards his subject, a forerunner of expressionism
artists in this category felt like impressionism rejected too many traditional artistic concepts and tried to emphasize universal themes in their paintings and to outline more clearly
What were the four main types of socialism in the 19th century?
Utopian Socialism, Marxism, Fabian Socialism and Christian Socialism