When does classicl civilization appear on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea?
800 BCE
When does this civilization fall?
476 CE
Which was first to establish- Greeks or Romans?
What empire tried to take over Greeks?
Persian Empire
Buildings and memorials in DC were designed after what models?
Greek and Roman models
What early river civilization did the Persians inherit many of the achievements of?
Monotheistic religion that come from the Persian region?
Who will conquer the Persians?
Alexander the Great
What empire will emerge in the Persian area during Rome's imperial centuries?
Island of Crete was influenced by who? Show in what type of architecture?
Egyptian influence shown in monumental architecture
Who were the Greeks?
Indo-European people who took over the peninsula
Rise of strong city-states occurres when?
between 800 and 600 BCE
Describe govt. of city-state
each city-state has its own govt., either tyranny or aristocracy
Greek city-state regular celebrations called?
Olympic games
Two leading city-states?
sparta and athens
who did the greeks defeat in 500-449?
war in which athens and sparta fought forcontrol of greece?
peloponnesian wars
macedonia king who conquered greece?
phillip ii of macedon
who was macedonian king phillip ii's son?
alexander the great
name of time period in which greek civiliztion consolidated and greek art and culture merged with middle eastern forms?
hellenistic period
who controlled greece after alexander the great
roman republic
name of wars in which romans spread their control
punic wars
pheonician city on the north africa coast the romans fought for
name of genera the romans defeated
what type of animas did hannibal use in battle
why did the romn republic grow unstable
generals tried to gain more power while the poor of the city rebelled
the roman empire suffered a slow decisive fall which lasted 250 years until
invading peoples from the north overturned the govt. in 476 CE
explain how the g and r felt about politics. what did citizens feel about their rights?
active participation in politics was important to both g and r. citizens felt they had certan rights and obligations w/o which their govt. could not survive
under roman empire emperor was in control but local city-states still..
kept considerable autonomy in italy, greece, and eastern mediterranean
greco-roman societ believed in what citizenship
compare greco-roman and china political ideas
greco-roman did not develope a single set of political institutions, but china did have a divinely sanctioned emperor and an elaborate bureaucracy
romans and greeks did not prefer what type of leadership?
name of individual strong men who pormoted public works and protected common people from?
tyrants against abuses of aristocracy
what type of democracy did athens practicce
direct democracy
who was allowed to participate in the assembly
all active citizens (women, slaves, and foreigners were not citizens)
what was the most preferred government
aristocratic assemblies
expwho ruled in roman republic
two consuls shared primary executive power
explain senate
held almost all executive offices
explain dictator
was chosen to hold emergency power until crisis passed
explain roman empire polit. system
senate, developed ways to organize larger regions, officers had more politicalpower than emperors, local autonomy
how did the romans hold vast territories together
with carefully crafted laws
explain idea of roman law; based on, regulated
based on twelve tables, regulated property rights and commerce
rome secured
vital supplies of grain
rome built
roads, harbors, stadiums, public baths
rome provided
cheap food and entertainment
how did roman govt. support religion
sponsored publiic ceremonies to honor the gods and goddesses
why did romans attack christians
refused to place state first in devotion
how did roman infrastructure help spread christianity
ease of movement in empire
types of gods/goddesses
seen as regulating human life, creator, god of sun, oceans, war, love and beauty
greco-roman belief system lacked
spiritual passion
ethical behavior
no basis for ethical thought so thinkers had separate models of ethical behavior
romans famous for building
support arches
characteristic of greek architecture
emphasized monumental construction, square or rectangular in shape, w/ columns
characterisitc of roman architecture
bigger buildings, free-standing stadiums, domes, heavily, adornd monuments and public buildings
status of merchants
higher status (second most prestigious class)
what role did slavery play in economy
VITAL, were servants, miners, agricultural workers, and tutors
explain social structure: family, women, infants
husband in control, women have economic roles, female lower status than male
mediterranean society unlike china..
region was not simply disrupted onlly to revive
mediterranean society unlike india..
was no central religion to servve as link between classical period and following period
the fall of rome was not
how did rome fall (amount)
fell more in some parts than in others
how did the greece and rome culture live on
heritage was more complex and more selective than india or china
what did the greeks call nongreeks
other greeks traded and relied on
what role did alexander the great in greek outreach/influence
important contacts between east mediterranean, rest of middle east, and western india
what war brought rome into contact w/ north africa
punic wars
on the northern border what tribes learned about the empire through trade and battles
what products did rome enjoy from china
luxury goods especially silk
what did romans build in places they conquered
same kinds of monuments and amenities
rome had a sense that there was little to what
learn beyond their borders