A formal church ritual
Sacrament (Masses)
Led the defense of Tours
Charles Martel
A Holy Roman Emporer
Otto the Great
He opposed the Albigensians
Pope Innocent III
Word that is derived from the Latin for Middle and Ago
medieval (middle ages)
Name for the Angleo-Saxon kingdoms
The are bound to the manor
This archbishop opposed King Henry's reforms
Thomas A Becket
He crossed mountains to seek papal pardon
Henry IV
A monastary head
Near-total authority within a fief was wielded
William the Conqueror earned his title by
Leading Normans to victory in Battle of Hastings
The strongest Germanic group to emerge during the 400's AD was the
The wandering preachers who encouraged Catholic loyalty during the 1200's AD
Name three things Charlemagne did as king
Expanded the empire Encouraged formation of schools Defended Pope Leo III against Roman nobels
The reform-minded monastery at Cluny was located in
The behavior of knights was governed by a code of honor called
Feudalism began to take hold in Europe in the (years)
900's AD
Viking expeditions out of Scandanavia were triggered by
Over population and land pressure at home
The Benedictine Rule specified, among other things, that
monks could not own property
The first Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism was
The denial of basic Church teachings is called
Primarily intended to protect feudal rights, the Magna Carta eventually
guaranteed the rights of all English people
Most western Eruopeans had become Catholics by the (years)
1000's AD
Feudal society was characterized by
a hierarchial system of relationships & obligations
The code of knights is called
Defeated the Danes in 886 AD
Alfred the Great
Introduced by Henry II
petit jury
Conducted a census of western Europe
William the Conqueror
Doubled the size of Frankish territory
Site of Benedict's model monastery
Monte Cassino
Describes the deeds of Viking gods
An estate with peasants included is called a
Harald Bluetooth's native home is
Cemented ties between lord and vassal is called
The goal of the Inquisition was to
seek out and punish heretics
During the feudal era, noblewomen possessed few
List three characteristics of medieval castles
Habitation by both human & animal Had a square tower called a keep A large open area called a bailey
Charles the Hammer defeated Muslim forces in France in (year)
732 AD
The term in saeculo referred to those members of the clergy who lived
as a part of society
The self-sufficiency of the manor was important during the feudal era because
war and invasion made trade difficult
The North Atlantic island of Greenland was settled by the
Name three Frankish kings
Pepin the Short Charlemagne Clovis
The French king who strenthened the monarchy during the period 1180 to 1223 was
Philip Augustus
In the 500's AD, the Benedictine Rule was adopted by
Pope Gregory I
Those farmers who could not leave the manor without permission were called
peasants of the serfs
In return for receiving powers previously held by government, feudal lords swore an oath of
Under Henry II, feudal rules in England were replaced by
a common law
The reform movement that began in 900's AD was aimed at
loosening the ties between the church & feudal lords
The pope cut ties with the Byzantine Empire after
Pipin gave land in central Italy to the church
The relationship between nobles & peasants was known as