First Civilization in the Americas
Olmec People
First Civilizations in modern US
Hohokam Anasazi
One of the largest first cities
Cathokia Mississippian
Southeast Native Americans
Southwest Native Americans
Zuni Apache Navajo
Great Plains Native Americans
Northwest Native Americans
California Native Americans
Alaska to Greenland Native Americans
1492 Nina Pinta Santa Maria Landed on San Salvador Explored the Caribbean
Amerigo Vespucci
Portuguese Explored South America
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 Confirmed Spains right to most of the newly discovered lands
Hernan Cortez
Spanish Defeated Aztec in Mexico in 1521
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish Conquered the Inca in Peru
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Claimed Florida
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish Explored Southwest
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Explored Southeast
Native American Contributions
Corn, potato, squash New farming methods
European Contributions to Native Americans
Horses, wheat, domestic livestock Diseases
John Cabot
English Explored North America
Jacques Cartier
French Explored North America
Giovanni da Verrazano
French Explored North America
Founded in 1608 by French Samuel de Champlain Became capital of New France
French Exploration America
Reached Mississippi river Reached the Gulf of Mexico Founded Louisiana and New Orleans
First colony in America English Joint-Stock Company
Powhatan Confederacy
A group of local Native Americans who helped Jamestown
First House of Representatives
House of Burgesses 1619
1620 Mayflower Cape Cod Befriened Wampanoag people
Mayflower Compact
Self-government set up for the pilgrims
Roger Williams
Banned from Massachusetts Founded Providence Government had no authority in religious matters
Anne Hutchinson
Settled with others near providence
Rhode Island
Founded in 1644 Made up by Providence and neighboring cities Religious Freedom Total separation of religion and state
New Hampshire
1679 Royal Colony Religious Dissenters
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Moved his entire congregation to the Connecticut River Valley Disagreed with the idea that only church members could vote
Founded by Reverend Thomas Hooker 1636 First written constitution Allowed all men to vote and hold office
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Americas first constitution
Subsistence Farming
Raising crops only to feed the family Popular in New England
Thriving businesses in New England
Fishing Lumber Industry Ship making
King Phillips War
1675-1678 Named after Wampanoag leader
Henry Hudson
Discovered Hudson River Valley in New York Dutch New Netherland Seized by Charles II
New York
Named after the Duke of York Controlled by the Duke of York
New Jersey
Released by the Duke of York Offered generous land grants religious freedom the right to have a legislative assembly
William Penn
With permission from King Charles founded Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn Holy Experiment Religious Freedom Voice in government
Objected to obligatory taxes and military service
Bought by William Penn from Native Americans
Middle Colonies
Fertile land long growing season
Proprietary Colony Leader was George Calvert
Proprietary Colony
Owned by an individual who can govern as he pleases
Lord Baltimore
George Calvert Leader of Maryland
Toleration Act
Maryland Granted toleration to Catholics
Land given to friends by the King Soon were split over divided interests
Founded by James Oglethorpe A colony where the poor could start over
Sir William Berkeley
Dominated Virginias leadership Refused to support war with the Native Americans
Nathaniel Bacon
Organized a militia to attack the Native Americans Challenged Berkeley with a civil war Died in swamp
Bacons Rebellion
Civil War against Berkeley's power Fell apart after Bacon suddenly died
Slave Trade
Hard to do until in 1672 the king approved it
Population from 1640-1700
Population by the Revolutionary War
2.5 million
Two largest cities by the Revolutionary War
New York: 25,000 Philadelphia: 30,000
Slave Population
10-20% of the urban population 540,000 20% of the colonial population
Reasons Europeans came to the Colonies
Taxes, religious persecution, poor harvests
Women before the Revolutionary War
Married could not own property, make contracts or wills, and had a hard time divorcing Single women had more freedoms
Slave Trade
10-12 million were enslaved 2 million died on their way 500,000 went to British North America
Slave Codes
Laws for Slaves Kept African slaves from owning property, testifying against whites in court, receiving an education, moving about freely, or meeting in large groups
Navigaton Acts of 1660
Required all goods shipped to and from the colonies to be carried on English Ships Products that earned profit could only be sold to England
Staple Act
Required all colonial imports to come through England
Dominion of New England
King Charles Included Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connection, New Jersey and New York Led by Sir Edmund Andros
Glorious Revolution
King James II kicked of the throne His daughter and husband took over Had to sign English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
1689 Monarchs could not suspend Parliaments laws Could not create their own courts Could not impose taxes Could not raise an army Guaranteed freedom of speech among Parliament Banned excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment Guaranteed every English subject right to an impartial jury
William and Marry
Permitted Rhode Island and Connecticut to resume their governments Issued a new charter for Massachusetts granting the right to assemble and freedom of worship
John Locke
Two Treatises of Government Natural Rights Essay on Human Understanding People were not born sinful, instead their minds were blank slates that society and education could shape for the better
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Social Contract Argued that a government should be formed by the consent of the people
Baron Montesquieu
The Spirit of Laws Suggested that there were three types of political power: executive, legislative, and judicial
Great Awakening
Born again emotionally with God Widespread resurgence of religious fervor Height around 1740
Gained a strong following among poor farmers Welcomed enslaved Africans Condemned the brutality of slavery
French and Indian War
1754-1759 French and Indians vs Britain Won by Britain
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Declared Britain the dominate power in North America Declared the empire included all of New France east of the Mississippi and Florida
Proclamation Act of 1763
Tried to halt colonial expansion into Native American lands The king did not want another costly war
Customs Duties
Taxes on imports and exports
Sugar Act of 1764
Raised taxes on imports of raw sugar and molasses
Quartering Act of 1765
Obligated colonists to provide shelter for British troops
Stamp Act of 1765
Required Stamps to be bought and placed on most printed material
Sons of Liberty
Organized protests and tried to intimidate stamp distributors
Stamp Act Congress
Issued Declaration of Rights and Grievances arguing that they needed representation for taxation British in 1766 repealed the Stamp Act
Townshend Acts
Put new custom duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colony Also gave custom officers new powers to arrest smugglers
Boston Massacre
British troops opened fire on a crowd of protesting colonists during a commotion Weeks later British repealed multiple acts and laws
Committees of Correspondence
Thought of by Thomas Jefferson Way for colonists communicate with one another and coordinate strategy
Tea Act
Created favorable business terms for the British East India Company Multiple ports blocked off the harbor to Tea imports Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
Dumped imported tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts
To punish Boston Shut down Boston's port Others banned town meetings and expanded the powers of the royally appointed governor
Quebec Act
Extended Quebec's boundaries to include Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, India, and Wisconsin
Intolerable Acts
Coercive and Quebec Act
First Continental Congress
Met on September 5th in response to the Intolerable acts 55 delegates All colonies except Georgia Approved a plan to boycott British goods
John Hancock
Leader of the Continental Congress
First battle of the Revolutionary War Where General Gage sent men to seize arms and ammunition 70 minutemen had a short battle with them Paul Revere When they arrived at Concord, most of the military supplies were gone They were then surrounded in Boston
George Washington
Named General and Commanded in Chief of the Continental Army which included the militia around Boston First President
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 Colonists appeal to the King that they still wanted to seak a truce and were willing to stay under his control in terms of an agreement Rejected
Thomas Paine
Common Sense Argued that the King, and not parliament, was responsible for British actions against the colonies
Winter of 1776
Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware river and won two victories against the British in surprise attacks
Battle of Saratoga
Turning Point in the war France decided to join the United States Spain joined as an ally of France
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of the war
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Britain recognizes USA British kept Canada
Massachusetts and Virginia's Constitutions
Separation of Powers Three branches Two assemblies List of rights guaranteeing essential freedoms
Pennsylvania Constitution
Eliminated the position of governor One house legislature appointed by the people
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
1786 Declared that Virginia no longer had an official church and that the state could not longer collect taxes to support churches
Articles of Confederation
Framework A single congress Each state had one vote Could negotiate with other countries Raise armies Declare war Could not deal with trade or taxes
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A plan for selling and then governing the new lands west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the Ohio River It also guaranteed certain rights, including Freedom of religion and freedom of slavery
Shays's Rebellion
1200 followers of Daniel Shays protesting taxes
Constitutional Convention
Re-did the Articles of Confederation
Roger Sherman
Said that Congress would be split into two houses One would represent the states The other would represent the population
Great Compromise
Roger Sherman's idea
Three-fifths Compromise
Slaves would count as 3/5 a person for counting for house of representatives
Popular Sovereignty
Rule by the people
Power is divide between the federal government and the state government
Establishing Amendments
Two step plan Proposal and ratification
Required 9/13 states
First State
Delaware Because they accepted the constitution first
Were not against federalists Were scared of whether the state or federal government would be supreme Wanted a Bill of Rights
The Federalist
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments of the constitution Freedom of speech, press, religion, protection from unreasonable search,right to trial by jury, assembly
Virginia and the new Constitution
Barely agreed because of a promised Bill of Rights
New York
Mainly agreed because of they didn't, they'd be a lone state surrounded by other united colonies
North Carolina and the new Constitution
Not until November of 1789
Rhode Island and the new Constitution
Not until May 1790