Thirteenth amendment
abolished slavery
Freedmen's Bureau
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
Oliver Howard
Union general who headed the Freedmen's Bureau
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
10% plan
pledged loyalty to union by ten percent of the southern states votes towards the union and emncipation.
wade-Davis bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Congressional Reconstruction
also called radical or military reconstruction, to ten years (1867-77) of northern occupation in teh south meant to guarantee the rights and freedom of former slaves
civil rights bill of 1866
first congressional attempt to guarantee black rights in the south, passed over johnson's veto
Charles Sumner
Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks
Thaddeus Stephens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Moderate Republicans
group that viewed Reconstruction as a practical matter of restoring states into the Union and keeping the former Confederates out of government
Military reconstruction act
set up martial law (military rule) in the South , nullified Johnson's programs
impeachment of johnson
1868 violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote short
Hiram R. Revels
North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.
Blanche K. Bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States
Force Acts
A series of laws designed to protect black suffrage by authorizing the use of the army against the Ku Klux Klan
solid south
term used to describe the domination of post-Civil War southern politics by the Democratic Party
Lost Cause
romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat