Reasons for Immigration
1870-1920, 20 million Europeans came to the U.S. escape religious persecution improve economic situations (jobs) experience freedom in the U.S. escape difficult conditions (famine, no land, etc.)
Ellis Island
inspection station for European immigrants arriving on the East Coast in New York Harbor.
Immigration Inspection
check for serious health problems document checks literacy test with inspector
Requirements for Immigrants Admission
proving they had never been convicted of a felony demonstrating ability to work. showing they had money (at least $25)
Angel Island
inspection station for Asian immigrants arriving on the West Coast in San Fransisco Bay. harsher on the immigrants.
Immigrant Survival
many immigrants settled in communities with other immigrants of similar cultures and languages.
"Melting Pot"
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and people blending together.
Nativism
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners. gave rise to anti-immigrant groups led to a demand for immigration restrictions
Anti-Asian Sentiment
Chinese immigrants worked for low wages- this took jobs for native-born Americans. labor groups pressured politicians to restrict Asian immigration.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882-denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. 1943- lifted.
Urbanization
the rapid growth of cities. farmers and immigrants settled in cities due to new technology and job opportunity. cities soon became over crowded.
Americanization Movement
program designed to assimilate immigrants of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant American culture. schools taught them English, U.S. History, and government.
Urban Problems
serious shortage of housing. very overcrowded. sanitation was an issue.
Row House
attatched single family homes that shared walls, much like a town house or apartment.
Settlement Houses
community centers providing help to mostly foreign immigrants in slum neighborhoods.
Tenements
poorly built, overcrowded, multifamily, urban dwellings where many immigrants lived.
Mass Transit
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes. more were needed to keep up with the population demand.
Sanitation Issues
cities had a hard time supplying safe drinking water. people threw garbage out their windows. horse manure piled up on the streets. 1900- cities built sewers and created sanitation departments.
Crime Issues
pickpockets and thieves flourished (stealing to survive). NYC Police was relatively small and didn't make much impact on crime.
Fire Issues
cities had limited supply of water. most apartments were made of wood. candles and kerosene lamps used often. 1853- paid fire departments created. 1874- automatic fire sprinkler invented.
Great Chicago Fire
1871- a fire in that killed 300 people, left 100,000 homeless, and destroyed a third of Chicago. burned for 24 hours. property loss was at $200 million. 17,5000 buildings were destroyed.
Social Gospel Movement
an early reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor. established Settlement Houses.
Jane Addams
the first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement. pacifist.
Political Machines
corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. a boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Political Boss
representative for or head of the political machine gains votes and financial support for their parties by offering services to voters and businesses. controlled access to jobs. built sewer systems, parks, schools, orphanages, and waterworks in order to gain vote. many of them were immigrants. immigrants voted for bosses in return for citizenship, jobs, and homes.
Graft
a type of bribe, to make money off of power.
Election Fraud
illegal interference with the process of an election. tends to involve affecting vote counts to bring about a desired outcome.
The Tweed Ring
1869-1870- New York Political Boss Tweed (William M. Tweed) employed bribery, graft and election fraud. Tweed stole $200-$300 million from the state of New York. 1871- ring was broken. Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud/extortion. in jail for 1 year, then escaped to Spain.
Patronage
giving of government jobs to people of the same party who had helped a candidate get elected.
Civil Service
government workers and jobs. reformers proposed that civil service jobs would go to the most qualified, regardless of political views.
President Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes attempted to reform the Pendleton Civil Service Act. some members of Republican political party objected the idea. he decides not to run for re-election.
President Garfield
James Garfield attempts to reform the Pendleton Civil Service Act and is assassinated after 1 year in office. Garfield's Vice President, Chester A. Arthur becomes president.
Stalwarts
Republican politicians who supported the political machine and patronage. conservatives who hated civil service reform.
President Arthur
1830-1886- Chester A. Arthur got in office after Garfield is assassinated ultimately tries to reform the Pendleton Civil Service Act. congress finally passed this law. caused politicians to turn to big businesses for money.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883- an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Repercussions of Triangle Fire
dramatized the poor working conditions and led to federal regulations to protect workers. state of New York set up a task force to study factory working conditions. Women labor reform groups were formed and very common.
Triangle Fire
1911- a fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company factory killed 146 people, mostly women. died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground.