Social Inequality
Describes a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
The structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society Social inequality that is built into the structure of society
Four Major Systems of Stratification
Slavery, Caste, Estate, Class
Ascribed Status
A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics
Achieved Status
A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are own by others as property. The most extreme form of social inequality
A hereditary rank, usually dictated by religion, that tend to be fixed and immobile. Generally associated with Hinduism.
Also known as feudalism. A system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services
Class System
A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility.
Daniel Rossides' Five Class Model
Upper class, the upper middle class, the lower middle class, the working class, and the lower class.
Social mobility
Movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
Open System
A social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status.
Closed System
A social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility
Horizontal Mobility
The movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank
Vertical Mobility
The movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank
Intergenerational Mobility
Involves changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
Intragenerational mobility
Changes in social position within a person's adult life
Example of Vertical Mobility
The American Dream
Marx's belief on class
Social Relations during any period of history depend on who controls the primary mode of economic production, such as land or factories. Differential access to scare resources shapes the relationship between groups. Exploitation of the proletariat would inevitably lead to the destruction of the capitalist system, because the workers would revolt.
Karl Marx's term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of productions
Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society
Class Consciousness
In Karl Marx's view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change. This would lead to the overthrow of capitalism in favor of a system or more equitable distribution in the form of socialism and then communism
Dominant Ideology
Describes a set of culture beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
False Consciousness
A term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
A term used by weber to refer to a group of people who have a similar level of economic resources
Weber's view on class
He argued that the actions of individuals and groups cannot be understood solely in economic terms. Weber also looked at status groups
Status Group
People who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions
The capacity to organize to accomplish some particular goal.
Cultural Captial
Introduced by Pierre Bourdieu. Our tastes, knowledge, attitudes, language, and ways of things that we exchange in interaction with others
Pierre Bourdieu
He argued that people in different social class positions possess different types of cultural capital. For example, the tases of the working class differ from those of the upper class
Three categories of social resources
Material, social, cultural resources
The respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
The reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
A measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables
Wages and salaries measure over some period, such as per hour or year
The total of all a person's material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property, minus his or her debt at a single point in time
Absolute Poverty
A minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
Relative poverty
A floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole
The long term poor who lack training and skills
Life Chances
The opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
Digital Divide
The relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries.