13th Amendment
Abolish Slavery
14th Amendment
Civil Rights to all
15th Amendment
...Right to vote for all men
Black Codes
Laws that they cannot own land, vote, and hold jobs...
Jim Crow Laws
...Laws that segregated blacks and white in public places
Ku Klux Klan
A secret group that was against people who were not white
Westward Movement
Movement to move to the west in the U.S....
Chinese Exclusion Act
first U.S. law that excluded a minority group from entering the country in 1882...
...a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants
...activities designed to make foreign-born citizens into Americans
Ellis Island
the check-in for immigrants coming into the U.S. through New York...
Wounded Knee
Last of the Indian Wars in 1890 in the Dakotas...
Dawes Act
...General Allotment Act of 1887. Divided Indian Territory into allotments encouraging Native Americans to move away from the tribe and live on their own
Red Cloud and Cooper Union Speech
...Red Cloud spoke at New York City about the government not honoring the treaty
Chief Seattle
...1854 Oration in The Seattle Sunday Star on mistreatment of Native Americans
Quanah Parker
...Comanche chief that led his tribe to Fort Sill and assimilated into the "White Man's" world.
Chief Joseph
...Nez Perez chief that gave the "I will fight no more forever" speech.
Robber Barons
...In late 1800s, term used to describe businessmen that greatly take advantage of others
...a rich person who donates a bunch of money to create a better place for others
John D Rockefeller
...Standard Oil Company tycoon
Andrew Carnegie
...leader of the American steel industry. Donated funds to benefit communities.
Gospel of Wealth
...wrote by Andrew Carnegie telling it was the responsibility of the rich to care for the less fortunate
...the period in which society changes from farmers to factory workers
...slowly changing one's culture into another's culture
...investigative journalism to expose political, economical, and inappropriate business practices.
...practice of drinking little or no alcohol
civil rights
basic human rights...
empires taking over lands...
Deploy troops in the U.S. to control the citizens...
management of international relationships...
military interventionism
to intervene using the military...
...not taking sides
...to isolate from the rest of the world
a mob that takes the law into its own hands in which usually results in death of the accused
court injunction
...court order to do or refrain from a specific act
...investment in the stock market that is considered risky
...equal payments for something over a period of time
..."hands-off" or little/no government involvement in business
sit-down strikes
...is a form of civil disobedience in which organized group of workers in which the workers refuse to move
...society owns all businesses and splits all profits for the good of the society and equality
...government owns all businesses
...making nice in order to avoid a conflict
...imprisonment of people without trial
...rapid or excessive spread of something or an idea
...U.S. policy to prevent the spread of communism
spheres of influence
...international influence used to control a region
arms race
...the race to have the best armed forces
...easing of strained relations in a political sense
...dominant position in international relations by a country
...widely publicized set of allegations used to change public opinion
executive powers
...powers held by the president
...use of violent acts used to create fear for political gain
Ida Tarbell
Teacher, writer, and journalist - Wrote, "The History of the Standard Oil Company" about the illegal business tactics being used
Upton Sinclair
Wrote, "The Jungle" concerning the meat packing industry's dirtiness.
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander G. Bell
inventor of the late 19th century; most famous for inventing the telephone; Atlantic Telephone and Telegraph
Bessemer Process
A process for making steel more efficiently, patented in 1856.
Sherman Antitrust Act
(1890) a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade but also controlled interstate trade
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
Alice Paul
..., United States feminist (1885-1977), head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
Jane Addams
Activist and co-founder of one of the best known settlement houses, Hull House in Chicago (1889), and recipient of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize for her work in the peace movement.
Pullman Strikes
Pullman laid off +3,000 railroad workers, increased prices at company store, cut wages which led to strikes , Debs negociated with Pullman but he said no, led to boycotting, more violence and Debs was later arrested
Haymarket Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers by the Knights of Labor in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
Eugene V. Debs
(1855-1926) Leader of the American Railway Union and supporter of the Pullman strike; he was the Socialist Party candidate for president five times.
Direct Primary
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
Initiative Petition
A process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum.
A legislative act (proposed law) that is referred to voters for final approval or rejection
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
Cross of Gold speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Theodore Roosevelt
1858-1919. 26th President. Leader of Rough Riders. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France. Created National Wildlife Refuge System
16th Amendment
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
1919, prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol.
19th Amendment
(1920) gave women the right to vote
20th Amendment
1932; moves inaugural date to Jan. 20th; get rid of lame duck period
21st Amendment
(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition; legalize sale of alcohol
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Booker T. Washington
(1856-1915) Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was founder of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Was criticized for "accomodating" segregation.
W.E.B. DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Poll Taxes
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
Literacy Test
A method to deny blacks (and poor whites) right to vote during the Jim Crow Era by requiring reading or civics test in order to vote. Could be selectively applied. Prohibited by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
"White Man's Burden"
Term coined by Rudyard Kipling. Racist and patronizing view that preached "superior" Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to "uncivilized peoples in other parts of the world. It justified U.S. actions in Philippines, Hawaii, etc.
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
Argued that the federal government should build a stronger and more modern navy to protect American businesses as trade in far off places rapidly increased. He wanted modern steam powered steel ships (later called the GREAT WHITE FLEET).
Anti-imperialistic League
sprang up and fought the McKinley administration's expansionist moves, included Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain, and Andrew Carnegie
Annexation of Hawaii
A, U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898; Adding of Territory
Yellow Journalism
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
President Theodore Roosevelt
He was a Rough Rider in the Spanish American War, our 26th President and was remembered as saying, "Speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far."
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated by Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson
..., 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Big Stick Diplomacy
The policy held by Teddy Roosevelt in foreign affairs. The "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them.
Dollar Diplomacy
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Missionary Diplomacy
Type of foreign policy, practiced by Wilson, said that it was America's duty to spread democracy and freedom to all people. U.S. would not recognize any South American countries if they were not democratic.
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
World War I
(1914 - 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Zimmerman Note
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
Fourteen Points
It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations).
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. It was officially dissolved in 1946.
Great Migration
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
First Red Scare
Early 1920s, Americans were fearful of a communist take over, many bombings; also fearful of all immigrants, like Sacco and Vanzetti; KKK resurfaced, Palmer Raids sought suspects
Spanish - American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Harlem Renaissance
1920s black literacy and cultural movement that produced many works depicting the role of blacks in contemporary American society: Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
the name for movies with sound in the 1920's. They helped double movie attendance, with millions of Americans going to the movies every week
Tulsa Race Riot
1921; started b/c a black shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a young, white, female elevator worker; lynching was rumors and white and black assembled to protect/defend their respective people; America's wealthiest black neighborhood "Black Wall Street" ended up being burned to the ground
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
gives Native Americans citizenship and the right to vote in federal elections in 1924
Stock Market
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
An economic philosophy developed by Adam Smith that promoted a hands off government. It prevented the government from taking serious action against the depression.
Stock Market Crash
When value of stock fell so low, people were left with huge debts; banks ran out of money and closed, people lost jobs. Start of Great Depression.
Great Depression
(HH) , starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it
Bonus Army March
Protest organized by WWI veterans who were demanding the payment of the service bonus they had been promised after the war. Hoover refused.
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
FDR's First Inaugural Address
"nothing to fear but fear itself" March 4 1933. wage war on the Great Depression.
Four Freedoms speech
A speech that proposed lending money to Britain for the purchase of US war materials and justified such a policy because it was a defense of "four freedoms (religion, speech, wants, and from fear)." Addressed to the Congress on January 6, 1941.
Roosevelt's court packing plan
Supreme Court declared FDR's New Deal unconstitutional. As a response, FDR attempted to pack (add more justice to) the SC. His goal was to make his New Deal viewed as constitutional.
Social Security Administration
August 14, 1935: permanent agency designed to ensure that older segment of society would always have enough money to survive and spend throughout their lives
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDI) A United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
Dust Bowl
..., Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
World War II
(1939 - 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Neutrality Acts
1939 laws designed to keep the United States out of future wars
Day Which Will Live in Infamy
bombing of Pearl Harbor
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
Pearl Harbour
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II. (p. 793)
D-Day Invasion
Invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy, on june 6th 1944, was a success, turing point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in europe
Atomic Bomb
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union
Island-hopping strategy
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
General MacArthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2 (He liberated the Philippines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
President Eisenhower
The US president who followed Truman. After election he immediately signed an armistice and ended the Korean War. He was the army general who led D-Day.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Nuremburg Trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
President Harry Truman
The president who presided over the end of World War II (ordered droppings of atomic bombs); "New Deal liberal" -> favored direct government intervention into economy; "Fair Deal"; National Housing Act; ended racism in government hiring and armed forces; Taft-Hartley Act; NATO; NSC-68
Division of Berlin
Germany and Berlin divided into US, Soviet, French, and British sectors as a result of Potsdam; US, French, and British sectors combined into West Germany in an attempt to unite Germany, but the USSR refused to give back their part b/c they wanted "protection"
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
Iron Curtain
(HT) , Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations
Marshall Plan
..., A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Agreement made in 1949 to stand firm against Soviet military threats, made between the U.S., Great Britain, France, and eight other nations
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Truman Doctrine
1947 US policy to provide military and economic aid to countries resisting Communist agression
President Kennedy
president during, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War.
Berlin Wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Peace Corp
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Cold War
(HT) 1946-1988, Churchill said it was a "iron curtain" between eastern and western Europe, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years, US against Communism (containment)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1952, 1956; Republican; Domino Theory established, Cold War deepened, sent US military advisors to Vietnam; president when Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, and created the Interstate Highway System (for purposes of national defense)
Army-McCarthy Hearings
The Trials in which Senator McCarthey accused the U.S. Army of harboring possible communists.These trials were one of the first televised trials in America, and helped show America Senator McCarthey's irresponsibility and meanness.
Second Red Scare
Post-World War II Red Scare focused on the fear of Communists in U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War and declined soon thereafter, when the U.S. Senate censured Joseph McCarthy, who had been a major instigator of the hysteria.
Couple executed for passing military secrets to the Soviets, Husband and wife tried and excuted for treason under suspicion of Communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union.
Nuclear arms race
Cold War competition between U.S. and Soviet Union to develop the most advanced nuclear weapons
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Vietnam War
..., a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Domino Theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Election of 1968
1968; McCarthy challenged LBJ, who was politically wounded by the Tet Offensive and the Vietnam War; LBJ stepped down from the running, and Kennedy and McCarthy were left on the Democratic ballot; but Americans turned to Republican Nixon to restore social harmony and end the war
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
26th Amendment
18 year olds can vote
Kent State protests
Students react to Nixon expanding the war. They break windows and burn the ROTC building. National Guard comes in and fires tear gas. students throw rocks at them and the National guard fires at them killing 4 students and injuring nine. Federal charges filed against the guardsmen.
Civil Rights Movement
a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
Desegregation of military
in 1948 President Truman ordered desegregation of the military
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher
First African-American student admitted to OU Law
George McLaurin
Allowed to study for his Ph. D in a colored section of the all-white University of Oklahoma.
segregation by law
De facto
Racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
Separate But Equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Rosa Parks
(LBJ) , United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Buss Boycott
Started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat so blacks started boycotting in 1955
Little Rock Central High School
Was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 when the governor of Alabama wouldn't allow the "Little Rock nine" access to the school. President Eisenhower then mobilized the 101st airborne division to force the school to admit the students.
Oklahoma City lunch counter sit-ins by Clara Luper
August 19, 1958 in Oklahoma City a nationally recognized sit-in at the Katz Drug Store lunch counter occurred. The group quickly desegregated the Katz Drug Store lunch counters. Eventually integrated all of Oklahoma City's eating establishments.
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Birmingham Church
The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for message of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
(1964) law under Johnson that made segregation illegal in all public facilities, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Selma to Montgomery marches
1965 King leads 54-mile march to support black voter registration. Despite attacks from police and interference from Gov. Wallace, marchers reach Montgomery. Pres. Johnson addresses nation in support of marchers
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
An African-American Civil Right's Activist and pastor who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee
assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
It caused riots over 100 cities across America. One week after his death Congress passed the Civil rights Act of 1968 it prevented discrimination in housing.
I have a dream speech
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality (Congress of Racial Equality)
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Women's Liberation Movement
1960s to present. argued that the traditional family form is oppressive for women and children. takes away womens independence and that we need to start looking at families differently
United Farm Workers
organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chevez
Cesar Chavez
(1) Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963; (2) helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right
American Indian Movement
an Indian activist organization in the United States. AIM burst onto the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
President Lyndon B. Johnson
President from 1963 to 1969. Most legislatively productive U.S. President. Civil Rights Legislation, Keynesian economics (Kennedy tax cut), Immigration Act, Warren Report, Great Society, War on Poverty (Office of Economic Opportunity, Head Start, Food Stamps, Medicaid), Medicare, money lost to Vietnam - escalation
Johnson's War on Poverty
name of campaign launched by Lyndon B. Johnson to bring poor into mainstream society by promoting greater opportunity.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Wounded Knee
'73 AIM organizers let dramatic takeover of trading post @ Wounded Knee on a Sioux reservation (SD) (Site of 1890's massacre of Sioux by white cavalry, symbolized white betrayal & bankruptcy of reservation policy)
National Organization of Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Roe v. Wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
Watergate Scandal
A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Nixon's reelection campaign staff. Before Congress could vote to impeach Nixon for his participation in covering up the break-in, Nixon resigned from the presidency.
Pentagon Papers
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
25th Amendment
Amendment that creates a chain of succession for filling in the presidential seat in case of death/incapacitation.
President Ford's pardon of Nixon
President Ford did this for Nixon because if he had been put on trial, it would have been a "nightmare that we can't afford."
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
OPEC oil embargo
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries that placed an embargo on oil sold to Israel's supporters. Caused worldwide oil shortage and long lines at gas stations in the US. in 1973
1979 Iranian hostage crisis
In 1979, with the ayatollah's blessing, young Islamic revolutionaries seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran. They took more than 60 American hostage and demanded the U.S. force the shah to face trial
(RR) The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, unemployed started going back to work
Iran-Contra Scandal
American weapons sold to Iran secretly and money made was given to Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Reagan's Tear Down This Wall Speech
wall comes down in Nov, 1989. Cold war has ended
Reunification of Germany
the process in 1990 in which communist East Germany was rejoined with democratic West Germany and berlin was reunited into a single city
Collapse of Soviet Empire
25 December 1991 in which Russia became it's own country and other countries split from the empire to gain independence.
Persian Gulf
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Yugoslav republics
Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia that won independence from the Soviet Union in the 1990s
Murrah Federal Building bombing
A terrorist bomb destroyed Oklahoma City's building on April 19, 1995. 168 people killed. Tiothy J. Mcveigh was convicted and later executed
World Trade Center Towers in 1993
On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked planes and flew them into the towers
September 11, 2001
(1) the date 19 Al-Qaeda members hijacked passenger airplanes and used them to destroy a small section of the Pentagon & destroy the twin towers of the World Trade Center in NYC;
The Patriot Act
Was passed in response to 9/11 attacks to stop, delay, and/or punish terrorist acts in the US and the world, and it allows the government to invade individual privacy. Freedoms were lost.
Department of Homeland Security
After 9/11 occurred, the Department of Homeland Security was established as the newest member of the cabinet with the goal to secure America.
Afghanistan War
US Military Operation in Afghanistan to find Osama Bin Laden and to destroy Al Qaeda
Iraq War
A war fought to end Saddam Hussein's influence in Iraq and disarm them of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD's)
George W. Bush
2000 and 2004; Republican; 9/11 terrorist attack invade Afghanistan and Iraq; economy: huge tax cuts, 2007-great recession; No Child Left Behind, Medicare prescription drug benefits, Hurricane Katrina disaster
Movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population.
Having a job or career and responsibilities that go with it
climate change
Any significant change in measures of climate, such as temperature, precipitation, or wind, lasting for an extended period of a decade or longer.
environmental pollution
substances that because of their quantity, chemical nature, or temp, have a negative impact on the the ecosystem or that cannot be readily disposed of by natural recycling processes
(Present) Creation of a global economy and society through improved communications, transportation, and trade.
population growth
Caused by increased numbers of young parents, high birthrate, a low death rate, better medical care, absence of plague and lack of war. The effect of it is the strain on economies, not enough jobs and on food, clothing, and housing production.
race relations
Race and ethnic relations refer to the recurrent patterns of interaction among groups socially defined as biologically and/or culturally different.
women's issues
Women continue to make lower wages than men at the same job, domestic abuse, women's right to choose, birth control methods, availability of educational resources, and military equality
uninsured individuals are the highest number in the history of the United States
civic engagement
a sense of concern among members of the political community about public, social, and political life, expressed through participation in social and political organizations
U.S. keeps declining and is poorly funded
rapid development of technology
laws in the United State cannot keep up with the development of technology