Napoleon's Costly mistakes
-Continental System -Penensula War -Invasion of Russia
Continental System
-In 1806, Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade & communication between Great Britain & other European Nations. -thought it would make continental Europe more self-sufficient & destroy Britain's commercial & industrial industry. -Didn't work -British aided smugglers to get goods in -Britain also set up their own blockade which worked better than the French (because of Britains powerful Navy)
Peninsula War
-Napoleon tried to get Portugal to accept the Continental System so he sent an invasion force through Spain. -Napoleon removed the King/Queen of Spain & put his brother in charge. -Spain was enraged & "guerilla's" struck the French Army -Britain then sent troops to fight for Spain causing Napoleon to lose 300,00 troops. *This weakened the French Empire
Invasion of Russia
-Napoleon's most disastrous mistake. -He decided to invade Russia , even though they were allies, because he thought they were selling grain to Britain & had an interest in Poland. -Napoleon's troops advanced but Russia pulled back their troops, refusing to be lured into an unequal battle. -**French Army was only left with a limited number of troops.
-Forcible closing of ports
-Bands of Spanish peasant fighters who fought against Napoleon's Army in Peninsula War. -They worked in small groups that ambushed the French troops then went into hiding.
Scorched-earth policy
Used by the Russian's when Napoleon's army arrived -They burned the grain fields & slaughtered livestock so the enemy would have nothing to eat.
Battle of Borodino
-Where French & Russian Troops finally clashed. -Napoleon enter Moscow but Russia had burned the city to the ground. -Napoleon lasted until mid October then retreated back to French
Retreat from Russia
-Winter came, & French troops were weak & hungry, -Russia attacked the retreating troops & devastated the French troops (only 100,00 were left).
Battle of Leipzig
-After defeat in Russia, Napoleon built up his army but they were inexperience/untrained soldiers. -French faced allied forces in this German City. -They were easily defeated by the allies. -Allied armies starting marching towards Paris. -Napoleon wanted to keep fighting but his generals refused. Napoleon surrendered & was exiled..
-stepping down from a position of authority.
-Tiny island off the Italian cost where Napoleon was exiled to.
Hundred Days
-Napoleon's last bid for power. -French peasants were upset at King Louis' brother who took over the throne. Afraid he would undo the revolution land reforms. -Napoleon escaped from Elba & arrived in French to cheering crowds. -thousands volunteered to fight with him & within day's he was the Emperor again.
Battle of Waterloo
-British & Prussian forces combined to attack the French. -French soldiers became exhausted & were chased out. -*-Battle resulted in Napoleon's final defeat & exiled him to St Helena.
St. Helena
-Remote islands in South Atlantic where napoleon was exiled to after Waterloo. -He lived there until his death in 1821