Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
13th amendment
abolished slavery
14th amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
equal protection
the 14th ammendment states that no person should be denied the same protection of law enjoyed by others
radical republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
an ambiguity (especially one in the text of a law or contract) that makes it possible to evade a difficulty or obligation
bring an accusation against
someone from the north comes down to the south to help out
one who is playfully mischievous
Jim Crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
former slaves
Literacy Test
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
Poll tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
granfather clause
a clause that allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction began; an exceptionto a law based on preexisting circumstances
characterized by tolerance and mercy
kill without legal sanction
the seperation or isolation of a race, class, or group
seperate but equal
the judicial precedent established by in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal protection provision of the fourteenth amendment as a means of establishing segregation
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
great migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
civil rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
chicago defender
black newspaper by Robert S. Abbott that was brought by train to the South • Implored blacks to come North for jobs
world war 1
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
a noisy and violent disorder caused by a group of people
world war 2
a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherl
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
to make up for