Embargo Act of 1807
Halted the shipment of goods from the US to Europe in response to British military and naval aggression.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1808
Permitted American exporters to ship their goods to all European countries except for France and England.
Causes of War of 1812
Impressment of US sailors & seizure of US ships, British occupation of Western forts and inciting Native American rebellions
Treaty of Ghent
Peace treaty signed by the US and Great Britain in 1815, ending the War of 1812.
War of 1812
A military and naval conflict that pitted the US forces against the British and their Indian allies. The end of the war eliminated post-Revolutionary British threats to US sovereignty.
The Missouri Compromise
In 1820, 11 free and 11 slave states. Henry Clay proposed to admit Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. As part of the Missouri Compromise, Congress drew an imaginary line at latitude 36,30 N in which slavery would be outlawed.
Monroe Doctrine
Policy announced by Pres, James Monroe in 1823 that the era of European colonization of the Americas had ceased; warned foreign powers (Russia, Spain, & Britain) that the US would not allow them to intervene in the Western hemisphere.
National Republicans
Led by John Adams, favored greater federal role in funding internal improvements and public education (Feature Article Fin 486 Final Exam)
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Election of 1828
The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.
Native American Policy & Removal
Jackson's removal of Native Americans
Recession of 1837
Result of Jackson v bank of US
2nd Great Awakening
A series of Protestant religious revivals that began in 1790s and continued through 1820s.
Manifest Destiny
Idea used to justify growth, expansion of economic markets, and conquest.
Transcontinental Treaty of 1819
treaty between the Us and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the Us, surrendered all claims to the Pacific Northwest, and agreed to a boundary between the Louisiana Purchase territory and the Spanish Southwest
Battle at the Alamo
Fewer than 200 Texans fought 4,000 Mexican troops at the Alamo in February 1836, all Texan Alamo defenders died; any battle survivors were executed
Battle at Goliad
an execution of Republic of Texas soldier-prisoners and their commander, James Fannin, by the Mexican Army.
Battle at San Jacinto
Captured Santa Ana
Trail of Tears
The name Cherokee Indians gave to their forced removal from the Southeast to the West.
War with Mexico
Occurred due to annexation of Texas. US won. Got California, Nevada, Utah, NM, Arizona and Texas., This conflict was a dispute over the US.Mexican border. It consisted of a series of US victories leading up to September 14, 1847 when General Winfield Scott finally marched his troops into Mexico City and forced Mexico to surrender.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
A national political party formed in 1834 in opposition to the presidency of Andrew Jackson and his policy of expanding the power of the president. The Whigs favored congressional funding for internal improvements and other forms of federal support for economic development.
Compromise of 1850
Congressional legislation that provided that California would enter the union as a free state and that New Mexico and Utah would eventually submit the slavery question to their voters. The federal government abolished the slave trade in Washington D.C.
Fugitive Slave Law 1850
Required local and federal law enforcement agents to retrieve runaways no matter where they sought refuge.
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south.
John Brown & Harper's Ferry
John Brown's failed scheme to invade the South w/ armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, N. abolitionists; seized the fed. arsenal; Brown & remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged; South feared danger if it stayed in Union
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
Ft. Sumter
Union fort attacked by Confederates in 1861 sparking the start of the Civil War
Bull Run
First battle of the Civil War, Confederate win.
Peninsula Campaign
Botched Union attempt to capture the capital Richmond by circumventing the Confederate army by sea.
The first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. War's turning point.
Appomattox Courthouse
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War