Adams-Onis Treaty
(Transcontinental Treaty) U.S. gives up claims to Texas and Spain cedes Florida to the U.S. and sets boundary to the Pacific Ocean
Convention of 1818
Between U.S. and Britain 49th Parallel set as northern boundary Joint control of Oregon for 10 years
Missouri Compromise
1820 Missouri entered as a slave state, Main as a free state Southern border of Missouri dividing line for future states
Monroe Doctrine
1823 U.S. announced that there would be no more European colonization European nations were not to interfere in the Western hemisphere
Clay's American System
Economic program to benefit the country proposed by Henry Clay in hopes of being elected as president
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin Introduced the concept of standardized/interchangeable parts
John Deere
Invented a steel plow that was much more durable than iron plows
Cyrus McCormick
Invented a grain reaper that increased the rate of planting and harvesting wheat
Erie Canal
364 miles long from Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie. Transformed the economy of upstate NY by cutting transportation costs
Fulton's Folly
Robert Fulton invented a steamboat call the Clermont Made 2-way traffic possible on America's rivers
National Road
Also called Cumberland Road Stretched from Baltimore to halfway across the state of Illinois Built with federal money
Samuel Morse
Invented the telegraph and then Morse code as form of communication
Cyrus Field
Laid the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean
Pony Express
Series of horseback riders who delivered mail relay style between Missouri and California in 10 days time Began in 1860 and lasted only a year because of the railroad and telegraph
Samuel Slater
Brought the design for a water frame that was power operated to spin fiber into yarn Built the first textile mill in American
Frances Cabot Lowell
Imitated British design for a power loom Built first factory in America where spinning and weaving with power machinery was under one roof
Lowell Mills
Textile community where women were hired to work and live in dormitories
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine that became the foundation for the ready-made clothing industry
Robert Hoe
Invented a power driven rotary printing press that lowered the cost of printing and led to mass production of magazines, newspapers, and books
Penny Press
Marketing technique where one copy of a newspaper was sold for one cent instead of a subscription
Gody's Lady's Book
Women's magazine that set the fashion trend and was the first to achieve mass distribution
Micajah Pratt
Introduced the concept of standardized parts to the shoe industry Began to mass produce shoes in about 1812
Election of 1824
Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford (had a stroke), Henry Clay Congress chose Adams between Jackson and Adams Jackson thought there was a corrupt bargain between Adams and Clay
Second Party System
Democrats and Republicans who were later known as Whigs
Jacksonian Democracy
Idea that common people would vote, hold office, and run the government
Petticoat Wars
Some of the wives of cabinet members were gossiping about the wife of the Secretary of War President Jackson made Peggy Eaton his official White House Hostess and fired some of the cabinet members
Nullification Ordinance
Tariff of Abomination, 1828 Opposition led by John C. Calhoun Tariff of 1832, lower South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification Force Bill-authorized use of the army Compromise Tariff of 1833-proposed by Clay and accepted by South Carolina thus ending the crisis
Second Bank of the United States (Biddle's Bank)
Bank charter to expire in 1836 Biddle moves Congress to recharter early Jackson vetoes the bill Jackson destroys the bank by spending from the federal bank and putting deposits in his pet state banks Panic of 1837:disappearance of the bank leads to depression
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Congress offered land in the west for all tribes that would voluntarily move there
Worcester v Georgia
Cherokee didn't want to move and claimed that they weren't subject to white men's laws Supreme Court ruled in their favor State of Georgia forced them to leave anyway
Trail of Tears
1838 removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma About 1/4 died along the way
Spoils System
Appointed positions to loyal party supporters
Second Great Awakening
Mass religious revival that inspired much of the reform in the age of Jackson
Charles Grandison Finney
Major evangelist during the Second Great Awakening
Utopian Communities
Held themselves up as models for the rest of society
Worked hard and produced products for market and were economically successful Leader: Mother Anne, preached celibacy
Oneida Community
Leader preached doctrine of complex marriage "free love" Community farmed and made steel traps and spoons Oneida Community Ltd. successful flatware company today
New Harmony
Model factory town established by Robert Owen Built near a factory and selected the workers Wanted leaders who would promote a cultured society Formed a government, produced a newspaper, and provided various cultural events
Brook Farm
Supported by a boarding school where wealthy children were taught by well known literary figures including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne
Horace Mann
Leader for education reform
Dorothea Dix
Led the movement to reform the insane asylums
Auburn System
Compromise between punishment and rehabilitation
Temperance Movement
Effort to reduce drunkenness
Maine Law
1851 Maine prohibited the sale of alcohol that began a wave of state legislation on this subject
Amelia Bloomer
Introduced pants as a part of women's wardrobes
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 First women's rights convention Drew up Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Listed goals of the women's rights movements Patterned after the U.S. Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Leaders of women's rights movement in the U.S.
Became the dominant movement by the 1840s
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist that called for immediate emancipation Published an anti-slavery newspaper called "The Liberator"
Frederick Douglass
Black abolitionist who said he was the "slave that stole himself" Ran away from his master and went to England Gave speeches to earn money Returned to the U.S. and purchased his freedom Started an abolitionist newspaper for blacks called "The North Star"
Sojourner Truth
Black female abolitionist Worked in the women's rights movement
Harriet Tubman
Conductor on the Underground Railroad Escaped slavery and went to Canada but returned to the South about 19 times to lead about 200 others to freedom
Underground Railroad
Network of whites and blacks that helped slaves escape to Canada from the South
Gag Law
U.S. Congress voted to table any issue that dealt with slavery and not discuss it at all
Lecture circuit that provided free programs on literature, science, music, etc.
Washington Irving
"Rip Van Winkle" "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalism, Essays and Lectures
Henry David Thorough
Walden "civil disobedience"
Gabriel's Rebellion
1800 Gabriel Prosser was a slave blacksmith that led slaves to march on Richmond, Virginia Betrayed and his plot was discovered Prosser and about 25 others were captured and executed
Denmark Vessey Conspiracy
Vessey was a free black carpenter that planned to takeover Charleston, SC Betrayed and about 35 others were tried, convicted, and executed Another 34 were deported
Nat Turner Rebellion
Turner was a slave preacher in Virginia Was a model slave and had a kind master He and 6 others killed the master and his family and went on a killing spree, murdering 57 men, women, and children Was caught trials resulted in 17 hangings and 200 more slaves were lynched
Missouri Compromise
1820 Missouri-slave state Maine-free state 36' 30' parallel-boundary for future states in the Louisiana Purchase (north of the line free and south of the line slave)
Republic of Texas
Declared independence from Mexico and established Republic in 1836
Stephen F. Austin
Founded a colony of anglos in Texas
Manifest Destiny
Idea that is was God's will for the U.S. to expand to the Pacific Ocean
Oregon Treaty of 1846
Compromise split Oregon Country between Britain and U.S. Northern boundary of the U.S. was extended to the pacific along the 49th parallel U.S. acquired Puget Sound and the Port of Seattle
James K. Polk
Elected in 1844 after promising to get Oregon and Texas for the U.S.
Texas Annexation
December 29, 1845 Texas became a state of the U.S.
Zachary Taylor
Sent by President Polk into TX with troops while TX was becoming a state Was ordered to move into the disputed area between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
The Mexican War
Fighting over disputed area of TX between the U.S. and Mexico
Winfield Scott
Sent by Polk by water and over land to capture Mexico City
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War 1848 Mexico gives up claim to TX Rio Grande is accepted as the TX border U.S. pays Mexico $15 million Mexico cedes territory that will be the future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California (Mexican Cession)
James Fenimore Cooper
Leatherstocking Tales The Last of the Mohicans
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass Known as a Civil War poet
Herman Melville
Moby Dick
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter
Gadsden Purchase 1853
U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for 30,000 sq. miles on the southern edge of present day Arizona and New Mexico for the purpose of building a railroad along a southern route to California
Gold Rush
Discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 led to a wave of gold seekers pouring into CA in 1849 (the 49'ers) 1859, major discovery in Oregon led to the "59'ers"
The Mormon Migration
Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints - the Mormons A lynch mob killed Smith for teaching and practicing polygamy in Illinois Brigham Young led the Mormons to settle Utah Territory beginning in 1846
Joseph Smith
Founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) Killed for teaching/practicing polygamy
Brigham Young
Led the Mormons to settle Utah Territory in 1846
Great American Desert
Area between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains People thought it was a desert so it was the last area of the U.S. to be settled
Seward's Icebox
Nickname given to Alaska after it was purchased from Russia in 1867 by Secretary of State William Seward
Commodore Matthew Perry
Sent to convince the Japanese that they must trade with the U.S. Took gifts of a telegraph and a miniature train Japanese began to cooperate and a treaty for trade was signed in 1858