In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of:
business leaders
Which of the following was NOT a task of the Freedmen's Bureau?
arming the freedmen
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given:
medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
Under Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction:
10 percent of the 1860 voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the Union
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction?
Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republicans write the "Wade-Davis Manifesto"?
to protest Lincoln's veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth:
was a pro-Confederate actor
Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson:
was a pro-Union southerner
Why was Johnson picked as Lincoln's running mate in 1864?
As a gesture of unity, they combined to create a National Union ticket.
Johnson's Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were:
the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact?
Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans' Reconstruction policies
Why did Radical Republicans want to disenfranchise former Confederates?
to keep them from electing Democrats eager to restore the old southern ruling class to power
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was:
a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
Why did the Radical-led Congress pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
It was a response to the "black codes" and the neo-slavery system created by unrepentant southern legislatures.
The 1866 congressional elections:
gave Republicans veto-proof majorities
What state was the only one in the nation that did not ratify all three constitutional amendments related to ending slavery
During Reconstruction, African Americans
attempted to establish schools
Most carpetbaggers were
Union veterans
Most scalawags were white southerners who had
opposed secession
Many former Confederates resented the new state Constitutions imposed by Radical Republicans because
their provisions allowed for black voting and civil rights
Ulysses S. Grant
brought little political experience and judgment to the presidency
"Hard-money" advocates argued that government war bonds should be:
paid off in gold
Jay Gould and James Fisk triggered a scandal with their scheme to
corner the gold market
By the time President Grant took office, southern resistance to the Reconstruction efforts had
turned violent
The primary objective of the Ku Klux Klan was
oppressing blacks and white Republicans
In response to the Klan, President Grant
tried to protect black rights
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in United States v. Cruikshank (which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significan
It decided that states' rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
Why didn't President Grant seek a third term in 1876?
By 1875, he acknowledged the growing opposition to his renomination.
On what issue did the Democratic and Republican presidential candidates largely agree on during the 1876 campaign?
relaxing federal authority in the South
What happened after the end of Reconstruction?
The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the Civil War EXCEPT:
the use of prison labor by railroad companies
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because:
they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that:
business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
Who developed the first alternating current electric system?
George Westinghouse
Why was the development of the alternating current electric system significant?
It enabled electricity to be transmitted across long distances.
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century?
They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits
The Pennsylvania oil rush:
outweighed, in economic importance, the California gold rush of a decade before
"Trusts" like Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust were vulnerable because they:
were appealing targets for prosecution on the grounds of monopoly or restraint of trade
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and
many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America
working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT:
child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
The Molly Maguires
aimed to right the perceived wrongs against Irish coal workers
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was provoked by
wage cuts that followed a depression
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
ended when the workers, who lacked organized bargaining power, returned to work
Why did Chinese refer to the Geary Act of 1892 as the "Dog Tag Law"?
It required Chinese to carry their residential permit with them at all times or risk imprisonment and deportation.
The National Labor Union:
was influential in getting Congress to enact an eight-hour workday for federal employees
The Knights of Labor
called for men and women to have equal pay for equal work
The greatest growth of the Knights of Labor took place
in the mid-1880s, when the union had several strikes against the railroads
The Haymarket affair
was blamed on seven anarchist leaders despite a lack of evidence
The American Federation of Labor
was primarily concerned with securing concrete economic gains
Membership in the American Federation of Labor at first
grew slowly
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor
The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
The Homestead strike
was waged against a Carnegie company
Violence erupted at the Homestead Works in 1892 when
Henry Frick tried to break a strike by bringing in Pinkertons
President Grover Cleveland's response to the Pullman strike was to
send federal troops to keep the trains running
Mary "Mother Jones" Harris promoted all of the following causes EXCEPT
Daniel De Leon
was the leading figure in the Socialist Labor party
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by
The state that gave the highest percentage vote to the Socialist presidential candidate in 1912 was
William D. "Big Bill" Haywood
was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World
The major prophet of the New South gospel was
Henry W. Grady
Proponents of creating a "New South" argued that the Confederacy lost the Civil War because
it relied too much upon King Cotton
Proponents of the New South believed that the South should
In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas EXCEPT
The American Tobacco Company was
dominating the U.S. tobacco industry by the twentieth century
Why was Alabama named the "Pittsburgh of the South"
It was an iron center.
Who was a prominent southern tobacco executive during the late nineteenth century?
James Buchanan Duke
The postwar South suffered from an acute shortage of:
Fertilizers in the South
accelerated soil depletion by enabling multiple plantings each year
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons' rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated
a lingering black voice in politics
Black migrants to the West were called "Exodusters" because
they were often making their exodus from the South
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because
they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT
Buffalo soldiers were
black soldiers who served in the West
The Comstock Lode refers to
a mining discovery of gold and silver in Nevada
Why was hydraulic mining so damaging to the environment?
It caused tons of dirt and debris to clog rivers, kill fish, and pollute downstream farmland.
In the battle at the Little Bighorn River in 1876:
some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers
The Indian tribe that defeated Custer and put up the greatest resistance to U.S. domination was the
By the late nineteenth century, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians believed:
the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people's needless deaths
In 1877, President Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with Native Americans, saying:
"Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part"
Which of the following statements about the cowboys' frontier is NOT true?
Blacks were generally not permitted to be cowboys.
The first great cowtown was
Abilene, Kansas
Cowtown" refers to
towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry?
As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more "cowtowns" were established in the West.
Much of the development of the western plains has been shaped by its:
arid climate
This export crop spurred growth in agriculture in the West during the late nineteenth century:
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women:
more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
In much of the nineteenth century, women in Texas were legally prohibited from:
serving on juries
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that:
the frontier shaped America's national character
The so-called "frontier thesis" is problematic because, among other things:
it exaggerated the homogenizing effect of the frontier environment and virtually ignored the role of women
Which region of the United States had the greatest proportion of urban dwellers?
the Far West
One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because:
it allowed larger numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
Tenement houses in New York City
had higher mortality rates than among the general population
As a result of overcrowding, sanitation, and ventilation problems in tenements
the mortality rate among the urban poor was much higher than the general population
All of the following contributed to epidemics, disease, and high mortality rates in the growing cities EXCEPT:
the banishment of animals to outside city limits
What do cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever all have in common?
They are all water-related diseases.
Why did the U.S. government open Ellis Island?
It was part of a federal effort to take charge of admitting immigrants to the country in light of the corruption that afflicted the city of New York's system.
After 1890, most immigrants were
from southern and eastern Europe
The American Protective Association:
was a nativist group strongest in the upper Mississippi Valley
Angel Island was:
the equivalent of Ellis Island located offshore from San Francisco
The exclusion of Chinese immigrants:
originally called for a ten-year term
Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 significant in American immigration history?
It was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class.
Middle- and upper-class urban families spent much of their leisure time:
together at home playing games or reading books
All of the following statements about newspapers in the late nineteenth century are true EXCEPT
they usually did not support either of the national political parties
Vaudeville shows were popular because
they included something to please every taste, social class, and type
Around 1900, saloons did all of the following EXCEPT:
serve as a great place for immigrant men to meet women
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing:
great urban parks in America
All of the following emerged as popular spectator sports with mass appeal in urban areas in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT:
Facing severe restrictions in their free time, married working women often:
found fellowship with other women on the public streets while tending to other responsibilities
Young, urban women eager for recreation often encountered far more obstacles than men because:
parents and authorities tried to limit their access to "cheap amusements"
Baseball could lay claim to being the most democratic sport in nineteenth century America because:
people of all social classes attended the games
All of the following statements about football are true EXCEPT:
It was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts
as America industrialized and immigration increased, access to secondary education in the United States:
expanded dramatically
The spread of public education between the 1880s and 1900 reflected the desire:
to Americanize immigrant children
The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890:
established and funded land-grant colleges
The first women's college to teach by the same standards as the best of the men's colleges was:
Women's access to higher education by the end of the century:
expanded significantly to the point that women made up one-third of all college students
William Graham Sumner
argued in his book Folkways that it was a mistake for the government to interfere with established customs
Though both embraced "pragmatism," William James and John Dewey differed in their approaches to philosophizing because:
Dewey threw himself into progressive social movements, while James did no
John Dewey's "instrumentalism
said that ideas were instruments for action
When Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner labeled the post-Civil War era the "Gilded Age," they implied that it was characterized by
widespread greed and corruption
One of the most important reasons that voter turnout was so high during the Gilded Age was that:
due to patronage and corruption by political machines, almost every government job was subject to the results of the latest election results
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act:
provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams
Which of the following best describes Rutherford B. Hayes and civil service reform?
Hayes did not get civil service legislation through Congress, but he set up his own rules for merit appointments.
As president, Chester Arthur proved to be:
surprisingly competent and independent
The reason that Chester A. Arthur did not win a second term in 1884 is that:
Republican party leaders were not pleased with his first-term record and did not nominate him to run for a second term
During the campaign for the presidential election of 1884, many prominent Republican leaders and supporters left the party because:
letters were discovered linking candidate James G. Blaine to the railroads
Mugwumps were centered in:
large cities and major universities in the northeast
Why did President Cleveland's support of tariff reform hurt his chances at reelection in 1888?
It inspired business leaders who supported high tariffs to donate millions of dollars to the Republican campaign to defeat Cleveland.
To fend off Cleveland's efforts to reduce the tariff, ______ gave the Republicans over $3 million in the election of 1888.
business owners
With the Murchison letter, a California Republican used a lie to suggest a link between
Cleveland and British free traders
Benjamin Harrison lost the popular vote in the 1888 election. How was he able to win the presidency?
He earned a majority of the electoral votes.
Commodity prices during the Gilded Age declined in large part because of:
overproduction and international competition in world markets
The Supreme Court decision Munn v. Illinois was significant to understanding the power of government to regulate industry because:
it upheld the right of state and local governments to regulate industry essential to the public welfare
The Independent National party:
was more commonly known as the Greenback party
What distinguished the Farmers' Alliances from the Granger Movement?
The Grange was a national organization that tended to attract more prosperous farmers, while the Alliances were grass roots organizations filled with struggling farmers.
What was the purpose of the "subtreasury plan"?
It allowed farmers to secure low-interest government loans.
Which of the following individuals was NOT one of the leaders in the Farmers' Alliance movement?
George H. Pendleton
All the following were included in the 1892 Omaha platform of the People's party EXCEPT:
returning to the gold standard
In the presidential election of 1892, the Populist candidate:
won twenty-two electoral votes
Why did the Populists endorse an eight-hour workday and immigration restrictions as part of their 1892 platform?
They were hoping to win support from urban factory workers to complement their agrarian base.
One of the causes of the 1893 depression was failure of:
the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad
In the depression of 1893, unemployment hovered around:
20 percent
In the 1896 campaign, William Jennings Bryan:
spoke and campaigned all over the country
In the presidential election of 1896, all of the following may be applied to William Jennings Bryan EXCEPT that he:
won after gaining the support of Theodore Roosevelt
One of the main reasons McKinley defeated Bryan in the election of 1896 was that:
Bryan got little support from factory workers in the cities
In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court:
. upheld a southern segregation law
Who was the first president of the National Association of Colored Women?
Mary Church Terrell
Booker T. Washington
offered an indirect endorsement of segregation
Economic prosperity was returning to the country by 1897 because of:
the inflationary impact of various gold discoveries around the world
Western imperialism in the late nineteenth century was stimulated by all of the following EXCEPT:
the fear that Bolshevik ideas might advance around the globe
John Fiske
wrote American Political Ideas, a book that stressed the superior character of Anglo-Saxon peoples and institutions
Alfred Thayer Mahan:
argued that sea power was essential to national greatness
Queen Liliuokalani:
opposed the Americanization of Hawaii
What is "yellow journalism"?
It refers to sensationalist news coverage that was designed to sell papers and manipulate public opinion.
The de Lôme letter:
referred to President McKinley as a weak and cowardly leade
One reason the United States went to war against Spain was that:
there was strong support among the American people for going to war
Emilio Aguinaldo:
was the Filipino rebel leader
As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States:
emerged as an imperial power
All of the following were put forward as reasons for the United States annexing the Philippines EXCEPT
gaining access to large oil and coal deposits in the Philippines
Why did the United States fight a war in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War?
to quell an insurrection of Filipinos who opposed annexation by the U.S.
The Philippine-American War became known for:
its brutality and the atrocities committed by both sides
The notion that Americans were God's chosen people was often used to:
justify American imperialism and territorial acquisitions
Why were American Catholics troubled by Protestant efforts to evangelize in Spain's former colonies?
The people of those territories were already Christians who belonged to the Catholic Church.
The Platt Amendment
sharply restricted the independence of Cuba's new government
The Boxer Rebellion took place in:
With the Boxer Rebellion, all of the following occurred EXCEPT
Secretary of State Hay abandoned the Open Door
Mark Hanna opposed naming Theodore Roosevelt as McKinley's running mate in the 1900 election because Hanna
saw Roosevelt as a madman who just might become president
Why was Theodore Roosevelt picked as William McKinley's running mate for the 1900 election?
Roosevelt was a popular figure from his exploits in the Spanish-American War and had been a strong public supporter of McKinley.
To reward Theodore Roosevelt for his vigorous campaigning on behalf of William McKinley in 1896, the new president appointed Roosevelt:
assistant secretary of the navy
Who was president when the United States acquired the right to build a canal across Panama?
Theodore Roosevelt
The Roosevelt Corollary:
stated that the United States could intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries to forestall the intervention of other powers
As a result of Japan's show of strength in the Russo-Japanese War:
Americans began to doubt the security of the Philippines
Roosevelt's "Gentlemen's Agreement":
stopped the flow of Japanese immigrants to America
Through his intervention in the Moroccan crisis in 1906, President Roosevelt:
may have prevented a war pitting France and Britain against Germany
The "yellow peril"was
racially charged description of a perceived threat from Japan
Roosevelt's intervention in the Russo-Japanese War and the Moroccan dispute:
won him the Nobel Peace Prize of 1906
Why did Theodore Roosevelt send the "Great White Fleet" on a world tour between 1907 and 1909?
to demonstrate that the U.S. had arrived as a world power
In hindsight, Roosevelt's approach to foreign policy was problematic because:
his efforts to deploy American power abroad were accompanied by a racist ideology
The muckrakers saw their primary objective as
exposing social problems to the public
Progressives supported all of the following as measures to democratize government EXCEPT
the poll tax
The commission plan of city government was first adopted in:
Galveston, Texas
The originator of the "Wisconsin idea" of efficient government was:
Robert M. La Follette
The National Child Labor Committee pushed
for laws prohibiting the employment of young children
Jane Addams called the impulse to found settlement houses
"Christian humanitarianism"
Frances Willard lobbied:
for women to become ministers
In 1917, a Prohibition amendment to the Constitution:
passed Congress, then went to the states for ratification
During the coal strike of 1902
President Theodore Roosevelt won support for his use of the "big stick" against corporations
Which of the following statements regarding the coal strike of 1902 is NOT true?
Roosevelt once bellowed that "the Constitution is more important than coal!"
Congress established the Bureau of Corporations:
to monitor the activities of interstate corporations
The Hepburn Act of 1906:
authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum rates for railroads
In the area of conservation, Theodore Roosevel
used the Forest Reserve Act to withdraw over 170 million acres of timberland from logging
The Newlands Act of 1902:
established a new federal agency to deal with water in the West
In the 1908 presidential race
the Democrats once again nominated William Jennings Bryan
______ eventually became chief justice of the Supreme Court
William Howard Taft
As president, Taft:
preserved more public lands in four years than Roosevelt had in nearly eight
In the presidential election of 1912, William Howard Taft:
was the Republican candidate
Woodrow Wilson was
a professor and college president
Which candidate was shot during the 1912 presidential campaign?
Theodore Roosevelt
Of the four presidential candidates in 1912, the one most likely to advocate government ownership of big business was
Eugene Debs
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom platform:
proposed vigorous anti-trust action to break up corporate concentration
In his first term as president, Wilson did all of the following EXCEPT
failed to reorganize the banking system
Upon becoming president, Wilson appointed as secretary of state:
William Jennings Bryan
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act
outlawed price discrimination and interlocking directorates
The Federal Reserve Act did all of the following EXCEPT
shifted the U.S. Treasury back to the gold standard
The election of 1912 brought about all of the following EXCEPT:
brought the same man to the White House in nonconsecutive terms
Despite his racist views, President Wilson still nominated Josephus Daniels for:
secretary of the navy
Louis D. Brandeis
. was the first Jewish member of the Supreme Court
The Adamson Act of 1916
established the eight-hour day for railroad workers