Herbert Spencer
he thought evolution could be applied to everything (social Darwinism) synthetic philosophy
Henry Hollerith
punched cards: punching holes to indicate the demographics of the individual
William James
*he is not considered the founder, but he had a very important impact *criticized for his interests in mental telepathy, communication with dead séances, etc. *published "principles of psychology" *consciousness is a continuous flow; stream of consciousness: "" and any attempt to reduce it to its elements will distort it *pragmatism: the validity of ideas is measured by their practical consequences *theory of emotions: the arousal of the physical response precedes the appearance of the emotion *three-part self: material, social, spiritual *habit: influence of physiological influences (nervous system)

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Mary Whiton Calkins
*developed the paired associate technique used in the study of memory *first women president of the APA
Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley
was the first women to experimentally test the Darwinian notion that women were biologically inferior to men; results showed no sex differences
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
she found that the menstrual cycle was not related to performance deficits
Granville Stanley Hall
*Many firsts: began the first psychology journal and lab; 1st president of APA; one of the first applied psychologists *Hall's single theme: evolutionary theory *recapitulation theory: children in their personal development repeat the history of the human race
the founding of functionalism
protest against restrictions emphasis on: mental elements: looking at real world problems and applying it and how people function in, and adapt to, different environments
John Dewey
*practical orientation: applying psych to educational and philosophical problems * Reflex arc: the connection between sensory stimuli and motor responses (forms a circle)
James Rowland Angell
*spread the word of functionalism *the goal of psych: study how the mind assists the organism in adjusting to its environment
James McKeen Cattell
*mental testing - human abilities such as reaction time and speed *own experimentation with drugs; studied with Wundt *sterilization of delinquents and "defective persons"
Alfred Binet
*first truly psychological test of mental ability *assessed memory, attention, imagination, and comprehension *mental age: the age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks
Lewis Terman
invented a test of the intelligence quotient (IQ); formula = mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
Florence L.


developed the draw a man test
Maude Merrill James
write with Lewis Terman for the revision of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test
Psyche Cattell
developed the cattell infant intelligence scale
Anne Anatasi
"test guru"
Lightner Witmer
*founder of clinical psychology *worlds first psych clinic *child evaluations *clinical psych advances slowly until WW2
Walter Dill Scott
the first person to apply psychology to personnel selection, management, and advertising *advertising and human suggestibility *employee selection
Lillian Moller Gilbreth
her ideas applied to organization of the home. example: the shelves on the inside of the refrigerator door
Hugo Munsterberg
interested in applied areas: clinical, industrial, and forensic psychology eye-witness testimonies
Hans the wonder horse
*showed the importance of objective experimental study of animal behaviors with proper controlled conditions *Oskar Pfungst - unintentionally conditioned by his owner (osten)
Toward a science of behavior (Wundt Versus Watson)
Watson promotes some changes: the philosophical tradition of objectivism and mechanism, animal psychology, and functional psychology. This new psych focused only on what could be seen, heard, or touched *focus on behavior instead of consciousness Wundt focused on introspection - thinking about one's own thinking; pure psychology of conscious experience
Jacques Loeb
*Tropism: Loeb's theory of animal behavior based on an involuntary forced movement (no animal consciousness) *Associative Memory: animals had learned to react to certain stimuli in a desirable way
Edward Lee Thorndike
*created a mechanistic, objective learning theory that focused on overt behaviors *believed that psych must study behavior, not mental elements or conscious experiences *Connectionism: Thorndike's approach to learning that was based on connections between situations and responses (argued that behavior must be reduced to its simplest elements: the S-R units *the puzzle-box (trial and error learning) *law of effect: acts that produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation *Law of exercise: the more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation
Ivan Pavlov
*physiologist *helped shift association from its emphasis on subjective ideas to objective and quantifiable physiological events (measure the volume of saliva in dogs) *conditioned reflexes: reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between S&R *Reinforcement: something that increases the likelihood of a response *poor Twitmyer - example of simultaneous discovery with Pavlov
Vladimir Bekhterev
* observed overt behavior; Russian; interest in motor responses (associated reflexes: also by stimuli that have become associated with the unconditioned stimuli
John Watson
*hardened behaviorist perspective/ all about the environment/ all nature no nurture *he founded behaviorism did not originate it; mental concepts have no value for a science of psychology *he changed the nature and role of the human subject in the psychology laboratory: subjects no longer responsible for the observing; role of experimenter more important than the subject; subjects merely behaved which reinforced the view of people as machines
Karl Lashley
former advocate of Watson's behaviorism, but changed his mind: Law of mass action: little specialization with brain except with the prefrontal cortex Principle of equipotentiality: notion of plasticity area can take over function of another area
forceful opponent of Watson; Known for his instinct theory of behavior: suggests there are innate tendencies to thought and action
3 stages of behaviorism
1. Watson's behaviorism: peak of popularity in 1924 2.

Neobehaviorism (1930-1960): includes the work of Tolman, Hull, and Skinner [study of learning, laws of conditioning, operationism] 3. Neo-neobehaviorism (sociobehaviorism) (1960-1990): includes Bandura and Rotter [a return to the consideration of cognitive processes while maintaining a focus on overt behaviors]

the doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms related to the set of operations or procedures by which it is determined; discarding pseudo-problems (propositions that cannot be put to experimental test)
Edward Chace Tolman
*purposive behaviorism: combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of purposiveness or goal orientation in behavior (S-S learning; reinforcement not necessary; latent learning) *intervening variables: unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior (5 causes of beh: environmental stimuli, physiological drives, heredity, previous training, and age)
Clark Leonard Hull
*devoted to problems of the scientific method *spirit of mechanism * 4 useful methods: simple observation, systematic controlled observation, experimental testing of hypotheses and the hypothetico-deductive method.

This was hulls' method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusion can be deducted *primary (innate) drives and secondary/learned drives *law of primary reinforcement & habit strength

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B.F. Skinner
*Hull emphasized the importance of theory, whereas Skinner advocated for an empirical system with no theoretical framework *he was devoted to the study of responses *empty organism approach: not concerned with speculating about what might be occurring inside the organism *operant conditioning: a learning situation that involved behavior emitted by an organism rather than elicited by a detectable stimulus (ex. rat in the Skinner Box, presses bar receives food) *law of acquisition: the strength of an operant behavior is increases when it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus *behavior modification: the use of positive reinforcement to modify the behavior of individuals or groups
Albert Bandura
*Social Cognitive Theory: stressed the influence on external reinforcement schedules of such thought processes as beliefs, expectations, and instructions *emphasized the importance of rewards or reinforcements in acquiring and modifying behavior *Modeling: individuals can learn virtually all kinds of behavior without experiencing reinforcement directly *vicarious reinforcement: learning can occur by observing the beh. of other people *Self-efficacy: one's sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life's problems
Julian Rotter
* was the first psychologist to use the term "social learning theory"; he argued that we learn primarily through social experiences *cognitive processes: we perceive ourselves as conscious human beings capable of influencing the experiences that affect our lives *Locus of Control: Rotter's idea about the perceived source of reinforcement 1. internal locus of control - is the belief that reinforcement depends on one's own behavior 2. external locus of control - is the belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces